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ISSUE #470 

USA $3,95 





\ V 

Bench Supply 

new On-line 






Secret — page 14 

More J! 

r Mods 

i ..i --.»»• |M^t^^> 





Rated for conimuous duty. 2W&}ntinuous duty output 

T301 Syiitheslzed VHF Eitcfter: for various bands 
1 39* 174MH2, 216-226 MHl Dip switch freq setting 

• Kit tT(«n bands only) , $109 (TCXO Option S4D) 

. Wjred/tested, ind TCXO $189 

T304 Synthesized UHF Exciter: 
various bands 400-470 MHz. 

* K it (4 4 0^450 hiam b^nd Qt\]'fi 

ind TCXO .. $149 

• Wired/tested... $189 
» TASI; for 6M, 2M, 220 MHz ,.„ktt$99. wft $169 

• TA451: for 420^75 MHi. .... .......kit $99, w^/t $169 

• TA901 : for 902-928 MHa, (0 5W out) wit $169 


Output levels from 1 0W to 1 0OW...... , Starting at $99 


Very sensitive -Q.2^V. 

Superb s&fectivity, >700dB down at ±12 kHz, best 

availBble anywttGfe. flutier^proof squelch. 

R301 Synthesized VHF Receiver various bands 
139-174MHI. 216-226 MHz 

• Kit (ham bands onl^) ...Only SI 39 (TCXO Option $40} 

• Wired/tested ...$209 
(Includes TCXO) 

R304 Synthesized UHF Receiver: [Ta ^ * io^-, 
various bands 400-470MHz. Jmv^^^'^'li^^^'^ 

# Kit {440-4 bO him ttandwity} fll^^' S' i*.1^ Al if?*' 7 

inciTCXO $179 

• Wired/tested ..$269 


• R100 RCVR. For 46-54, 72-76, 140-175. or 216-225 

MHz, „.. kit $129, wft$1S9 

. R144 RCVR. Like R10C. for 2M, with helical 
Fesonalof in front end........ hit S1S9. w/t $219 

• R451 RCVR, for 420^75 Mte Similar lo RlOO 
above. ,„. ........kit $129. w/t 1189 

• R901 RCVR, 902-92BMH1 „..„. kit $169. w/t $219 

Exciting new AM 
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• Ideal for monitoring at small airports. 

■ Allows pilot control of runway lighting. 

• HIgh-qualtty ELT monitor to detect and locale 
downed aircraft. 

■ Dip switch frequency selection. 

• Superior sensitivity and setecttvity 

R121 Receiver module wtretJ/lested $209 

R12t Receiver in A87 cabinel $299 



• Miniature MOSFET Preamp. o hi ,|?^ ^ 

• Low noise figure , /^^J''^ ^ 

• AvBsfabie for various bands '-^Li^y ^^^i* 
from 28 to 450 MHz. 






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LN<3-\ ) GaAsFET 

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Access all your favorite 
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* Encodes all standard CTCSS 
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* Decoder can be used to mute receive audb and is 
optima ed for tfistallation m repeaters to provide dosed 
IICCe$S. High pa£$ fitter gets rkd of aruiaymg rcur buzz. 

• TD-5 CTCSS Encodcf/Oecodef Krt ,«,*«^^«no^)tf only S39 
■ TO-5 CTCSS Encoder/Decoder Wirgdvtpgfgd .....„,$ 5 q 


No need to Epentl thousands on 
new transceivers Tor ^ach bandt 

■ Convert vhf and uhf signals 
to a from 10M. 

• Even if you dont have a tOM rig, you can pick up 
very good used xmtrs & fcvrs for next to nothing. 

• Receiving converters (shown above) available for 

vanous segments gf 6M, 2M, 220^ and 432 MHz. 






TrransmltUng converters for 
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Kils only S69 vhf of 599 uW. 
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Join the fun, G«t Stiiklnti 
Images directly from the 
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A very sensitive wideband fm 
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APT & Russian Meteof weather fax on the 137M1-Iz bami. 

Covers all 5 sateJitie en an wis Scanner circuit & recorder 
control aiJow you to automatlcaJly capture sigriafs as 
satellites pass overhead, even wt^ile away from ^K>me. 

See product review with actual satellite pictures ft Jiine 
1999 Q ST. along with mfo on software and ante/inas 

• R139 Receiver Kit less case ^„. ..„,..„. ^....|159 

« R139 Receiver Ktt w^ case and AC power adapter $189 

• R11$ Receiver wn in case wiili AC power adapter . $239 

• tntemal PC Demodulator Board & tn^agtng Software $2€9 

- Turnstile Antenna ,.„„.,.. ,..„..* «,.,„.S13S 

i Weather Satellite HancfboOti „„^^,„,%20 


Get time & frequency checks 
without buying multiband hf 
rcvr. Hear soEar activity reports 
affecting radio propagation. 

V ery sens iti v e a n d s e i ecUv e \ i 

CNStei €on\ioM supert^e^ ded^^^ed to ^^\f^m lo wvvv 

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A microproGessor-controiied repeater with fyll 
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COR-S. \iP controller with autopatch, revei^e ap, phone 
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TD-2. Foiir*digit DTMF decoder/controllef Five latching 
on-olf functions, toll caU restridor. , kJl $79, w/t $129 

TD-#, DTMF coAtrotTer 3S above eifcept one othj?! 
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£1 Supremo & Founder 
Wasffie Green W2NSD/1 

Associate Publisher 
F. L Marlon 

Associate Technical Edttor 
Larry Anronuk WB9RFn" 

Nitty Gritty Stuff 

J- Clayton Burnett 
Prlscllla Gauvln 
Joyce Sawtelle 

Contributing Culprits 

Bill Brown WB6ELK 
MfKe Bryc© WB8VGE 
Joseph E-CafrK4iPV 
Michael GeierKBIUM 
Jim Gray W1 XU/7 
Jack Heirer KB7NO 
Chuck Houghton WB6IGP 
Dr. Marc Leavey WA3AJFI 
Andy MacAIHsler W5ACM 
Dave Miller NZGE 
Joe Moell K0OV 
Steve Nowak KE8YN/5 
Carole Perry WB2MGP 

Advertising Sales 
Frances Hyvarinen 
Roger Smith 
603 924^X)58 
Faju 603 924-8613 


Linda Coughlan 

Data Entry & Other Stuff 
Christine Aubert 
Norman Marion 

Business Office 

Editorial • Advertising - Circulation 

FeedbacJc - Product Reviews 

73 Amateur Radio Today Magazfne 

70 Hancock Rd- 

Peierbofough NH 03458-1107 


Fax; 603*924-8613 

Reprints; $3 per article 
Back issues: $5 each 

Printed in the USA 

Manuscr^ts: Contributions For 
possible publication are most 
welcome, We'ii do the t^est we can to 
return anything you request, but we 
assume no nesponsibrlity for loss 
or damage Payment for submrtted 
articles will be matle after publication. 
Plaaae submif both a disk and a 
hard oopy of your artkiie [IBM (ok) 
or Mac ipfe^enBd} farmais]p carefuly 
checked drawings arxj schematics. 
and Die dearest, ttest bcused and 
fgfiled photos you can mar^age, "How 
to write lor 73' guidelines are avaAaM i 
on request US cm^erfi. please 
inctude your Social Security number 
with submitted manuscripts so we can 
sutKh it it to you know who. 

ISSUE #470 


Radio Today 




6 The X(MashRles 

10 Big-Tfme Bench Supply — Sellen 

This hi^fy regulated SCH design might be overkitL bat 
it's sM/ fun to build 

14 Secret E)eath Ray — N7MGT 

OrisHAARF a useful science tod? 

22 TVTiJtor — ZL1AAN 

How to get started In SSTV. 

24 Why Not Renew On-line? — AC3L 

Here's how to untangle the FCC Web. 

26 Read AIJ About m — K8J WR 

Part t ot TachnoTrivia from The l-leitzian Herald, 

^ A Cold ma\ and a Mot Radio — AD4EX 

That's wtiBt ^is XYLs OM now cofnes hofne to. 

31 Secrets of Transmission Lines — KE2QJ 

Pan 5: tmpedance and refleaions. including a IdlfGhert table* 

35 Need a UHF Dipper? — W6WTU 

Pan 3: Mods for using the tuner as a dipper. 



Above & Beyond 


Ad Index 


Barter 'n' Buy 





The Digitaf Port 






Never Say Die 


New Products 



On the Go 







Radio Bookshop 



1999 Annual Index 

page 54 

Web Page 

w WW. way negrcciL com 

On the cover: HAARP secrets revealed beginning on page 14, We are always looking for interest- 
ing articles and cover photos — with or without each other. Your name could be in this space next 
month, and our check could be on its way to you! Couldn't you use a little extra cash? 

Feedback; Any circuit works belter with feedback, so please take the time to report on 
how much you like, hate, or don't care one way or the other about the articles and 
columns In this issue. G = great!, O = okay, and U = ugh. The G's and O's will be 
continued. Enough U's and it's Silent Keysville. Hey, this is your communications 
medium, so don't just sit there scratching your... er.,. head. FYI; Feedback '^number" is 
usually the page number on which the article or column starts. 

73Amafei/r Rad/o Today '\SSH 1052-2522) is published monlhly by 73 Magazine. 70 N202. Pelerborougli NH 
03458-1107, Ttie entire contents ©1999 by 73 Magazine. No part of Ihis publication Marchbe reproduced 
without writien permission of the publisher which is not all that difficult to get. The subscription rate ts: one 
year $24.97. two years S44 97: Canada: one year S34.21. two years 857.75. mcludmg postage and 7% GST. 
Foreign postage: Si9 sudace, $42 airmail additional per year payable in US funds on a US bank. Second 
class postage is paid at Peterborough. NH, and at additional mailing offices Canadian second class mail 
registration #178101. Canadian GST registration #125393314. Microfilm edition: University Microfilm, Ann 
Arbor MJ 48106. POSTMASTER: Send address changes io 73 Amateur Radio Today; 70 HancocJc fld.. 
Peterborough NH 03458-1107. 73 Amateur Radio Today is owned by Shabromat Way Ltd. of Hancock NH. 

Contract: By being so nosey as to read ttiis fine print, you have Just entered into a binding agreement with 73 
Amateur Radio Today. You are hereby obligated to do something nice for a ham friend — buy him a subscription 
to 73. What? Afl of your ham friends are already subscribers? Donate a subscription to your local school library! 

Mumb9r f on your Feedback card 

Neuer srv die 

Wayne Green W2NSD/1 


The Latin Exam 

Well, by golly, amateur ra- 
dio hit the from page of The 
Wall Street Journal! That's 
the good news. The bad news 
is that the article made us 
look like idiots and is un- 
likely to do anything but turn 
away even more prospects. 
The article compared the value 
of our code exam, for which 
the League seems willing lo 
kill the hobby in order to pre- 
serve, to a Latin exam. It's 
about as relevant. 

Sure, I agree, there are still 
dozens of old-timers who en- 
joy the arcane art of CW. We 
have lots of antique car buffs, 
too, but that's no reason to 
make the test for a driver's li- 
cense include being able to 
crank a car to start it. 

When I tirst got on the air 
60 years ago, around 95% of 
all ham contacts were via 
CW. Today it's more like 5%, 
and definitely time to get out 
of the 1 9th century and rec- 
ognize that the calendar is 
turning over to the 21st. 

If your ARRL director dares 
to show his face at a club 
meeting, please do your best 
to give him a brain enema 
about this damned code crap 
and stop the ARRL from 
making us all look like jerks. 

Again, I have nothing 
against CW, which is just one 
of the many modes available 
to us. I Just don't like seeing 
amateur radio being blown 
away because the ARRL di- 
rectors want to force us to do 
what they are convinced is 
good for us. 

In case you haven't no- 
ticed, our hobby is dying, and 
not slowly, either, The monthly 
FCC figures on new licenses 
and upgrades are dropping 

Ham dealers are going out 
of business, as are more and 

more manufacturers. The at- 
tendance at Dayton was way 
down, with empty exhibitor 
booths everywhere* Ads in 73 
are way down, and they're also 
down in QST, as the industry 
slowly shrivels away. 

The Journal reporter was 
way off base on one point. He 
said that learning to copy 20 
wpm can take years to learn. 
Well, that's probably right if 
you use the ARRL system. If 
you use mine, which takes 
sneaky advantage of how the 
brain is wired, you can start 
from scratch and copy 20 wpm 
in a few days- Some people do 
it in a weekend. 

This is supposed to be a 
technical hobby, not a skill 
hobby, so let's kill the code lest 
requirement before it kills us* 


ril bet some readei^ are old 
enough to remember when the 
US amateurs were the innova- 
tors, The UK, which used to be 
known as Great Britain, has 
announced that they're going 
to lower the code speed re- 
quirement for operation on all 
the HF bands to 5 wpm. Fur- 
ther, they say they expect the 
next rrU meeting in 2002 or 
2003 to do away with the 
Morse Code requirement en- 
tirely, which they will then also 

Meanwhile the ARRL di- 
rectors youVe elected, and 
then condnued to re-elect, 
want to continue to maintain 
the Morse Code barrier for 
HF operating — thus keeping 
over half of our licensees 
from being able to use the HF 
bands (and perhaps thus guar- 
anteeing that they'll quickly 
lose interest in the hobby and 
go away). Talking about very 
little or less over the local re- 
peater doesn't hold much in- 
terest for any but those with 
low-double-digit IQs. 

■■-■■' ■-■>>■■'■■• 

With an estimated 80% of 
licensees inactive, there's htde 
incentive to bother renewing 
their license when it comes 
up for renewal in ten years. If 
we make it through Y2K and 
the other potential disasters 
predicted for the next few 
years, unless the ARRL di- 
rectors wake up we could 
well be down to 250,000 lic- 
ensees within ten years. And 
dropping fast. 

Hello, Newington! You're 
up against the Internet now! 
And, after many years of al- 
most total' obscurity and lack 
of promotion, few kids today 
have even heard of amateur 
mdio. Is anybody awake there? 

An Education 

I sec where Bill Gates is 
now worth $100 billion. Not 
bad for a kid who read my 
editorials in Byte and Micro- 
computing magazines and 
dropped out of college to start 
a little software entrepreneur- 
ial business back in 1976. 
We've been so thoroughly 
taught to equate an ''educa- 
tion" with a college degree 
that almost everyone believes 
it. Well, it's a crock, 

Richard Sears didn't go to 
college, and neither did Aaron 
Montgomery Ward. Nor James 
Cash Penney Jr., and their 
stores have done fairly well. 
John Jacob Astor, who became 
the richest man in America, left 
home and started working as a 
teenager. So did Wall Street 
financier Jay Gould and steel 
magnate Andrew Carnegie, oil 
tycoon John D. Rockefeller, 
Henry Ford, and David Sam- 
off. A recent Inc. magazine 
survey showed that virtually 
every successful entrepreneur 
either skipped college or 
dropped out. 

I suspect it was their early 

4 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

start in business that gave 
them all the edge. 

The lesson to be learned 
from this is that college is for 
suckers. My own wasted four 
years in the institution taught 
me one thing: that almost 
none of the courses I sweated 
through have been of the 
slightest benefit to me in the 
many businesses I've been in 
— radio, television, publish- 
ing, manufacturing, and retail- 
ing in the conununications, 
electronics^ computer, and 
music flelds. 

Indeed, a college degree is 
almost invariably a guarantee 
that a youngster is never go- 
ing to make a lot of money. 
Yet, despite all experiences to 
the contrary, youll be hard 
put to find anyone who hasn't 
been convinced of the enor- 
mous value of a college de- 
gree. And rU be surprised if 
anydiing I can write will 
change your deeply embed- 
ded belief in college, ^TThere 
goes Wayne again." 

Education is important, but 
it's selfneducation that counts, 
not the number of exanis 
you've crammed for in order 
to get a degree (and then for- 
gotten). When I finally wised 
up and started my first busi- 
ness, one of the first things I 
did was take a course in ad- 
vertising put on by the Adver- 
tising Club of New York. I'm 
quite sure diat no college 
teaches the invaluable things 
I learned there. And that got 
me to reading books on ad- 
vertising because I wanted to 
learn all I could. 

Our child labor and mini- 
mum wage laws, which the 
labor unions have bribed 
Congress to pass to prevent 
competition from kids, have 
done incalculable harm to 

Yes, of course colleges 
could be made relevant to the 
21st century, but that's going 
to be over die dead bodies of 
the college faculties. In my 
editorials, which I reprinted 
in my Declare War book, and 
cited again in my Improving 
State Government book ($5, 
book #30), I explained a 
simple way college educa- 
tions could be made relevant 

Continued on page 13 

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The X(mas)-Fiies 

11:51 PMDEC24 

We're too fate! tfs aiready been here. Maiden 
1 hope you know what you're doing. 

Look. Scully, just like the other homes: Dou- 
glas fir. truncated, mounted, transformed into a 
shrine: halls decked with bot^ghs of holly: slock- 
ings hung by the chimney, with care. 

Vba really think someone's been here? 

Someone, or something. 

Mulder, over here — it*s a fruitcake. 

Dont touch it! Those things can be lettiaL 

tfs OK. There's a note attached: "Gonna find 
out who '$ naughty and nice. " 

It's judging them. Scully. It's making a list. 

Who? What are you talking about? 

Ancient mythology tells ol an obese human- 
old entity who could travel at great speed in a 
craft powered by anltefed servants. Once each 
yean near the winter solsticeH this creature is said 
to descend from the heavens to reward its fof- 
lowers and punish disbelievers with jagged 
chunks of anthracite. 

But that's legend, Mulder — a story told by 
parents to frighten chltdren. Surely you don't 
believe it? 

Something was here tonight, Scully, Check 
out the bite marks on this gingerbread man. 
Whatever tore through this plate of cookies was 
massive — and in a hurry. 

It left crumbs everywhere. And look, Mulder, 
this milk glass has been completely drained. 

It gorged itself, ScuHy. It fed without remorse. 

Bat why would they leave it milk and cookies? 

Appeasement, Tonight is the Eve, and nothing 
can stop its wilding. 

But if this thing does exist, how did It get in? 
The doors and windows were locked. There's no 
sign of forced entry. 

Unless I miss my guess, it came through the 

Wait a minute, Mulder. II you're saying some 
huge creature landed on the roof and came down 
this chimney you're crazy. The flue is barely six 
inches wide. Nothing coutd get down there. 

But what if it could alter tts shape, move in all 
Ifirectbns at once? 

You mean, like a bowl full ofjeity? 

Exactly Scully, IVe never tofd anyone this, but 
when I was a child my home was visited. I saw 
the creature, ft had long white shanks of fur sur- 
rounding its ruddy, misshapen head. Its bloated 
torso was red and white. Til never forget the horror. 
I turned away and when I looked back, it had some- 
how taken on the fadaf features of my father 


€ 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

I know what I saw. And that night It read my 
mind. It brought me a Mr Potato Head. Scully. It 
knew that f wanted a Mr Potato Head! 

I'm sorry, Mulder, but you're asking me to dis- 
regard the laws of physics. You want me to be- 
lieve in some supernatural being who soars 
across the skies and brings gifts to good little 
girls and boys. Usten to what you're saying. Do 
you understand the repercussions? If this gets 
out. they'll close the X-Files. 

Scully, tisten to me: It knows when you're 
sleeping. It knows when youVe awake. 

But we have no proof. 

Last year on this exact date. SETS radio tele- 
scopes detected bogeys in the airspace over 27 
states. The White House ordered a Condition 
Red, But that was a meteor shower. Officially. Two 
days ago. eight prized Scandinavian reindeer 
vanished from the National Zoo in Washington 
DC. Nobody — not even the zookeeper — was 
told about it. The govemment doesnl want people 
to know about Project Knngle. They fear that if 
this thing is proved to exist, tJie public will stop 
spending halt its annual income in a Christmas 
shopping frenzy. Retail markets will collapse. 
Scully, they cannot let the wo rid believe this crea- 
ture lives. There's too much at stake. They'll do 
whatever it takes to ensure another silent night. 

Mulder, I — 

Sh-h'h. Do you hear what I hear? 

On the roof. It sounds like ... a clatter. 

The truth is up there. Let's see what's the 
matter ,,, 

Found at The Laffatorium [} 
by the Piano Amateur Radio Klub, and published 
in their December 1998 Parking Ticket. 


The US Treasury has just announced that it 
will sefl three new types of bonds: 
■ The Al Gore bond, which has no rnterest; 

• The Monica Lewinsky bond, which has no 
maturity; and 

• The Bfll Ctinton bond, which has no principaf. 
It is not true that they will be issuing an ARRL 

bond, which has no redemption date. is Here 

They call it e ham dot net, and it couW be the 
beginning of a new way for hams to interact with 
one another and the world around them. 

E ham dot net made its debut in cyberspace 
on September 2nd. its creator. Bill Fisher W4AN, 
says that the site can best be described as a 
community of hams from around the wortd inter- 
acting as a community. 

Fisher says that e ham dot net aimed at giving 

hams a place to share ideas. This is accom- 
plished on many ievels. ranging from simple sales 
ads to propagation and DX information to a chat 
area where anything can be discussed. 

But that's notaif. E ham dot net includes news 
items from Newsline and other sources, a caiisign 
server, free ads to swap on-line wrth listings au- 
tomatically exported and reposted to the rec dot 
radio dot swap newsgroup, and much, much 
more. Access to e ham dot net is free. To lake a 
look go to]. 

Thanks to W4AN, ra Newsline. Bill Pasternak 
WA6ITE editor. 

The Shorter, the Better 

If you are planning on putting on a hamfest or 
convention, think small. At least if you live any- 
where in the southeastern United Slates, that is, 
where smaller seems to equate with better. 

Tlie realization that small hamfests dedicated 
primarily to flea marlceting and ham radio testing 
are the most popular comes as a result of a sur- 
vey conducted by the South Eastern Repeater 
Association. The results, which are available in 
the fall issue of its Repeater Journal, shows that 
60% of those surveyed are more likely to attend 
a one-day hamfest than any other kind of show. 
60% also said that all one-day shows should be 
held only on Saturday with 72^ d saying that the 
starting time should be an early 8 a.m. local time. 
Least popular are fuil-fledged conventions with 
manufacturers' representatives and mega dis- 
plays. Only 39% said that they cared for these 
types of shows. Also, an overwhelming 64% said 
that no matter what kind of show it is, they usu- 
ally head home between 1 and 2 p.m. in the 

In the area of forums, radio clinics, and other 
such activities, 54% of those responding said that 
these are not important to them. Only 33% at- 
tend these activities on a regular basis, with an- 
other 36% dropping by once in a while. On the 
other hand, 79% say that having ham radio ex- 
amlnations available at a hamfest or convention 
is one of the most important services that a show 
can render. 62% say that exams should be held 
in the mofnirg. 

The SERA survey covers just about every as- 
pect of hamfest activily and contains many rev- 
elations that even industry leaders were probably 
unaware of- It's reasonable to assume that ham 
radio manufacturers and publishers will be tak- 
ing a very close look at the facts that the SERA 
survey delivers as they begin planning their at- 
tendance at shows for the year 2000 and beyond. 

Thanks to the Repeater Journal, as reported 
/n Newsline, Bill Pasternak WA6ITE editor. 

Changes at Dayton 

Some major changes ane coming to the way 
lorum speakers are reimbursed at the Dayton 
Hamvention. Until now, forum leaders and speak- 
ers were given sixty dollars a day for up to two 

Continued on page 38 

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backlight for in-the-dark viewing, outdoor 
temperature sensor with ten fool cable. 

hour time on inner dial (for 
XYL ) and 1 200 to 2400 hour 
liine on its outer dial (for youK 
Auractiw i:km. white Jace 
is highly visible. Real glass 
cover! I landsome hunier green 
trim. Has seconds hand. 

Monster Displory Aiamit Cfoeir 
with PinPoiiitAcciiracy^ 

^24/12 hour /iff;^?»V 
Clock automatically 
receives WWVB Tor 
millisecond accuracy. 
Monster 2 inch LCD 
characters. Reads 
relative humidity and 
temperature (F or C). 
Has alann. Attractive 
metallic copper color. Use on desk or mount on 
wall Giant 8x10 Wx-^^D inch showpiece. 


1/. 't 




7 Band WeaihetAlBif 


plus s^th 


weather info/ 
^i'aminss on alt 7 weather channels: 
>IHz from 380 U.S. locations 24 
lour&dav- Also includes AM hM 
adio, spotlight, siren, flashing light 
or emergencies* Water res islam 
rabineL Shoulder strap. Great for 
lamfesis, DXpeditions, camping. 

14411-1 HanraeT' 

MKJ-76CM Ham Radio's 
*19^^ miosi versatile 
piussifch tool! Tliis 14- 
in-1 tool pock* 
el-size toolbox 
is ail you need 
for putting up 
antennas or 

HamGear"' Waislpak 



plus s&h 



. 4P MFJ CybeMU 

■^^ Tiny po\\erfiil MFJ CyberEar'^* 
'*' plugs in and loops over ear - captures 
and amplities sounds by 12 dB! Extends your 
hearing range, helps you hear e\er\^ word at 
hamfesis and club talks — even if you're on the 
back ro\\ ? Great for eyeball QSOs, 30 day money 
back if not absolutely delighted, Nm a hearing aid. 

Gear^ llmstPak'"* is the perfect 
hamfest, DXpedation or field day 
hands-fi-ee carr>'-all Has amazing 
s^oridng on rigs. 9 spots to put your ham radio gear. 
Includes needle-nose pliers with took, accessories and refreshmcnis. 
u ire cutters and jaws for gripping. Foam padded and comfortable. 
Has flaihead and Phillips screw dnv- Made of heavy duty twill burlap for 
ers, knife, niler, file, punch, morel long Ufe, Feanires tough w-ebbed 
Siainless steeL belt canrying case. belting with solid plastic buckle. 

(free JMFJ Catalog A 
and \earesf Denier . ■ . 800-64^-1800 J 

http:/h\wn\ mjjenterprises. com 

■ I Year So Sfmter liliaf^ warranty • 30 day money 
back gimrantee (less sb) <m orders direct from MFJ 


Box 494, Miss. State, MS 39762 
(662) 323-5869: :^-i mi csi. moh f n 
F.\X: (662) 323-6551; Add s/h 
Tech Help: (662) 323-0549 

1.8-170 MHz 


Reads complex impedance . . . Super easy-to-use 

New MFJ-259B reads antenna SWR . . . Complex RF Impedance: Resistance(R) and 
ReactanceQC) or Magmtude(Z) and PJtase(degrees) • . . Coax cable loss(dB) , . . Coax cable 

length and Distance to fault . . . Return Loss Reflection Coefficient Inductance , • . 

Capacitance • • . Battery Voltage. LCD digital readout . • , covers L8-170 MHz - . - built-in 
frequency counter . . . side-hy-side meters - • . Ni-Cad charger circuit , . . battery saver . , • 
low battery warning . . . smooth reduction drive tuning , . . and much more! 

I h€ world's most popufav SWR 
analyzer just got incredibly better 
and gives you more rafue than ever! 

MFJ-259B ^ives voti a complete pic- 
ture of your antenna s performance. You 
can read antenna SlVn and Cofuplex 
Impedance from L8 to 1 7U MHz. 

Von can read Complex Impedaitce 
as series resistance and reactance (R+jX) 
or as magnitude (Z) and phase (degrees). 

Yon can determine velocity factor, 
coax cable loss in dB, length of coax and 
distance to a short or open in feet* 

You can read SWR, return loss and 
reflection coefficient at any frequency 
simultaneously at a single glance. 

You can also read inductance in uH 
and capacitance in pi- at RF frequencies. 

Large easy-io-read two line LCD 
screen and side-hy^side meters clearly 





display your information, 

it ftas huift-in frequency counter^ JVi- 
Cad charger circuit, batter}* surer, low 
battery naming and smooth reduction 
drivi' inning, 

Sttper easy to use! Just set the 
handsH'itch and tune the dial —just like 
your transceiver, AM R and Complex 
littpedance are displayed instantly! 

Heron's what you can do 

Find your anteniiti's true resoiiaiil fre- 
quency. Trim di poles and verLictils. 

Adju<it your Yagi» quad, loop and other 
antenniis, chiiiige ajiteniia spacing and height iind 
watch SWR. re.sisiancc and reactance cRangc 
instantly. You'll know ^.^xacily what to do by 
simpiv waiching the dispkiy. ' 

f erfectlv Tune criiicafHF mobile anten- 
lias in Sijconds for super DX - without sub* 
jc^:ting your transceiver to high SV\'R. 

Measure your antenna's 3:1 SWR band- 
width on one band, or analyse tyrultiband per- 
formance over the entire spectrum 1.8-170 MHz! 

Check SWR outside the ham bands wilh- 
ottt \ in latins FCC rules. 

Take ifie piesswork out of building and 
adjusting matching networks and bakiris. 

Accurately measure distance to a short or 
open in a tailed coax. Measure length of a roll 
or coax, coax loss, velocity tactor ancfimpedance, 

Measure inductance and capacitance. 
Troubleshoot and measure resonant frequency 

and approximate Q of traps, stubs, transmission 

lines, RF chokes, tuned circuits and baluns. 

Adjust votir antenna tuner for a perfect 
1:1 match without creatum QRM, 

.And this is only the Beeinnin^t The 

7^-7^ *tJ-Jir 



CaU ymirftivonte 
dealer for your 

best price! 



MFJ-259B is a complete ham radio test station 
including — frequency counter* RF signal gen- 
erator, SWR Aiiiilyzef \ RF Resistance and 
Reactance Analyzer, Coax Analj'zen Capacitance 
and Inductance Meter and much more! 

Call or write for A«eMciiiuiil 
MFJ*s comprehensive instruction manual 
is packed w iih useful applications ** all ex- 
plained in simple language v ou can understand. 

Take it anywhere 
Folly ponable. take n auyw heiie — remote 
sites, \m towers, on DX-pedicfons. U uses 10 
AA or Ni-Cad batteries (not included* or 1 10 
VAC with MFJ-1315, S 14,95. Its rugged all 
metal cabinet is a compact 4x2x6'/4 mches. 

Haw };«od is the 1\1FJ-259B? 

MFJ SIVR Analyzers^^ work so good, 
many antenna manufacturers use them in their 
lab and on Ihe production line - saving thou- 
sands of dollars in instnimentation costs! 
Used worldw ide by professionals everywhere. 

More Mf J SWR Anofyzer^ 

MFJ-249B, S229.95. Like MFJ-259B, 
but reads SWR, tnie impedance magnitude and 
frequencv only on LCD. No meters. 

,SeSs MFJ Z Nie^ew FM SignafAttalyzer''' 


measure sienal strength 
aver 60 dB raniie, check andTst^^ FM dcvi- 
ation. meiitsure antenna g^in. beam width, 
firont-to-back ratio, sidetobes, feed line loss 
in dS. Plot field strength patterns, posi- 
tioii antennas, measure' preamp gait). 

detect feed line faults, track dow n hidden transmit- 
ters, tunc transmmcrs and filters. Plug in scope to 
anajv^e modylaiion wave fomts, measure audio dis- 
tortion, noi&e and instantaneoys peak deviation. 
Covers 343.5 to 14S.5 MHz. Headphone jack, bat* 
tcry check Rniction. Uses 9V battery. 4x2V3x6Vj in. 

More hams use MFJ SWR Analyzers 


MFJ-209, $139.95. Like MFJ'249B but 
reads SWR only on meter and has no LCD or 
frequency counter 

[V1FJ-219B. $99.95. UHF SnU 
Analyzer^''^ covers 420^50 MHz, Jack 
for external frequency counter, TlixZn 
\2 -i inches. Use t%^ 6 9 \^olt batteries or 
1 1 VAC with MFJ. 13 1 2B, S 1 2.95. Frve 
**isr' to SO-239 adapter. 

SIVR AnafyxBr Accessories 

Dip .Meter Adapter 

MFJ-66, S 19.95. Plug a dip 

meter coupling coil into your 
MFJ SWR Analyzer'''' and turn it 
into a sensitive and accurate 
bandswitched dip meter. Save 
time and take the guesswork out 
of winding coils and determining 
resonant frequency of tuned circuits and Q of 
coils. Set of two coils co%er 1 .8-170 MHz 
depending on your SHR Anah'^er^^K 

Genuitte MFJ Carrving Case 

MFJ-29C, S14,95. Tote 
your MFJ-25^B anywhere widi 
thisgem^Vje MFJ custom cany^ing 
case. Has back pocket with secu- 
rity cover for carrying dip coils, 
adaptors and accessories. 

Made of special foam-filled 
fabric, die MFJ-29C cushions 
bltm s. dellects scrapes, and protects knobs, 
meters and displays from hann. 

Wear it around your waist, over your 
shoulder, or clip it onto the tower while you 
work - the fully-adjustable webbed- fabric car- 
rying strap has snap hooks on both ends. 

lias clear protective window^ for frequen- 
cy display and cutouts for knobs and connec- 
tors so you can use your MFJ SWR Analyzer^^ 
without taking it out of your case. Look for 
the MFJ lo^o for genuine authenticitv! 

MFJ-99, S54,85. Acccssorv Package tor 
MFJ-259 B 249 B 209. Includes 0^#iw/nt^ 
MFJ-29C carTjing case, \1FJ*66 dip meter 
adapter. MFJ-1315 1 10 VAC adapter Save 55/ 
■Sen'! Tu nable Sfea sn rem ent fitter^ ** 
MFJ-73L S89,95. Exclusive MFJ 
tunable RF filler allows accurate SWR 
and impedance measuremcnLs L8 to 30 
MHz in presence of strong RF fields. 
1 las virtually no ctfcct on measure- 
ments. Works with all SWR Analyzers. 

MFJ No Matter W7jYr/'^' wammty 

JVIFJ will repair or replace (at our option) 
your MFJ SWR Afmiyzer^^ for one ftill year. 

/^~Am JMFJ CcriolM^ 

\ ^ \earesi Beater , . . 80^-64^ ISOtf^ J 

hup ://w\vn\ mfjenterprises. com 

* 1 Year No Maner What'''* %%'arranty » 50 day money 
back guarantee { less ih) on orders from MFJ 


Box 494. Miss. State, MS 39762 
t60i) 323-5Hfi9; k-4:30Cst, M«i.-Fn. 
E4X: (601 J 323-6551 ; Add s/h 
Tech Help: (601) 323-0549 

hicc^and sptfcificantins subject Ik<- tli;!n[i^. {zi iV^H MFJ EinerpriitLW. /nc 

t/ian any others in the world! 

Eight band AV-640 vertical 
antenna covers 40, 30, 20, 

17, 15, 12, 10 and 6 Meters 

• No radials • No traps 

• No ground • No tuning 

• Handles 1500 Watts 

ky-gain's new PATRIOT HF verticals are the best built, best 
perfonning and best priced multiband verticals available today. 
Make full use of your sun spot cycle with the PATRIOT s low 
unfile signal. 

The AV-620 covers all bands 6 ihrough 20 Meters with no 
traps^ no coils, no radials yielding an uncomproniised signal across 
all bands. 

The AV-640 uses quarter wave stubs on 6. 10, 12 and 17 
meters and efficient end loading coil and capacity hats on 1 5, 20, 
30 and 40 meters. Instead of topical lossy can traps, the AV-640 
resonators are placed in parallel not in series. End loading of the 
lower HF bands allows efficient operation with a manageable 
antenna height. 

No ground ar radimk neecfecf 

* Eflective counterpoise replaces radials 

* End fed with hroadband matching unit 

Aiftomofic bandswHhing 

* Single coax cable feed 

* Each band is individually tunable 

* Wide VSWR bandwidth 

Sleek and lew'proSle 

* Low wind surface area 

* Small area required for mounting 
•Mount? easily on decks, roofs and patios 


* High wind survival 

* Matching unit made from all Tejlon^ insulated wire 

* One year limited warranty 

* All replacement parts in stock 

Contact us today! 

No other amateur radio company provides the full s€r%Tce customer 
support that we do every day. Please contact us for more information on 
hy-gain^ Patriot antennas. Not only do we manufacture the best dt*sij^ncd 
and constructed antennas, m^^ aiso manufiwtnre satisfied customers, 


« • * 

fke fraifffiofl confinves 

30S Industrial Park Road, Starkville, MS 39759 

• Free Catak^mmtDmkr, 81)0-647-180(1 

FAX; (662) 323-6551 • 8 a.m. - 4:30 p.m. CST, Mon • Fri 

L . 





hy-gain* A\ -640 

H Bands: 4IJ. ^ 2(k 17, 15. It lflL6 M 


Suggcstc^d Retail 

Call your dealer for 
yoiir best price! 





jpocificatlu tis 

Bands coverctl (ineiersj 

2:1 VSWR llandwidth (KHz) 






6,lO. 1.^ 











\^SWTt at rc ^<trianee f typical) 
Power hnntiliii^ (watts outp^lO 

l^f y do^Mi 2 m mutes 

Vertical radiLititm ang Je (d e^jreesj 

Ho it z ontal radiation an^lc (degrees) 

Hcijjht (ffret^ 

Weight (pounds) 

WtJid surface area (s qu ^are ffcgfl 
Wind survival {nipli) 














17,20,:^0 . 4O 








1 .5: 1 








Muntner 10 oo your Fe^bsck csrd 

Big-Time Bench Supply 

This highly regulated SCR design might be overkill but it's still fun to buiki 

Craig Kendrick Sellen 

Mallard Meadows RHC 

476 Belmont St., Room 405 

Waymart PA 1 8472 

Anyone who works with the lat- 
est electronic circuits, whether 
he or she is a professional or 
an amateur, will eventually require a 
closely regulated variable voltage power 
supply, ^liilc most power supplies are 
regulated directly from the basic recti- 
fied and filtered DC input, tighter 
regulation can be obtained by using a 
preregulated approach in design. 

The preregulated power supply de- 
scribed here can be built for just sliglitly 
more than you would have to pay for a 
conventionally regulated low-cuiTent 
power supply. It employs two inexpensive 
723 power supply voltage regulator IC 
chips in a circuit that can deliver from 3 
to over 35 volts DC at load currents up to 
3 amperes. The design eliminates the ne^d 
for massive heat sinks and cooling fans. 

Circuit description 

The preregulated power supply's cir- 
cuit schematic is illustrated in Fig- 1. It 
can be diagrammed as an AC source, 
diode bridge rectifier, and two voltage 
regulators in scries. The preregulator, 
by means of silicon-controlled rectifier 

Continued on page 12 




120 VAC 

D3 D11A 

DUB ±z cn 






^^ i rtr, [ 

D12 ^- y I Q2 




i I i i 





*— < 

Fig, L Cirmii schematic. Notes: I. Moimt SCRl andQl on4x2-I/2x l-tnch heat sink. 2. R5 current Umit: 3A — 5W/0.2Q; 2A — 3W/ 
OJQ; 1.5 A — IW/OJO; J A — JW/0.6n: OJSA — IW/OMU OJA — OJIV// Jii" 0.25A — 0.5W/2.2SI 5. A 120 VAC neon panel lamp 
with htiilt-ifi resistor can he mounted across the nvo poles ofSL such that if is on when the switch is thrown. 4, Along the connection 
between pin 12 ofUl and pin 12 qfL% voltage must not exceed 39 V 
10 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 



Ofilar on4inm mnd got big sa W 09s 

Take advantage of 73 Amateur Radio special 
savings by entering your order directly on the 
internet at the Communications Electronics web 
site. Visit CE) athttpj'/, click 
on "CEI News" and get big E-Value savings. 
Resellers, get special pricing when you fax your 
sales tax license to CEI at +1-734-663-8888, 




Kxpir*^ 03/3inftM 



,SAVE$30o«o.eRelm MPV32, 

I Save $30 when /oy pjrehase your RELM MP V32 transceiver diredly I 
Irorr CominiiintcaliDns Elertnonics Inc. For lasl delivery, erteryour order 

Ilhrough our web site hllp;//www.iisascanxonn or call Gonnmunicasions | 
Electronics al 1 -BOO-US A-SC AN TERMS: Good only in USA k Canada. | 
Only CHi e coypon ts rgdewnable p&r p urchas e. Vo i d wh a r e pro h ibited . 

RELM« MPV32-A Transceiver 

Mfg, SL^ggesled list price S5i5,00/Special $299.95 

Looking for a greal har>d-he3cl two-way trarec&Ner? Amateur radio 

operators depervd on the RELM WPV32 transceiver for direcl two- 
way tommLHicaiiorvs wiih tlwir harr radio repeater, fire, police 
departmertt or civii defense agency, The MPV32 Is our rJW>sl 
popuiar piq-gramrrable ffequency agile fiv&wall, 32 chaninel hand- 
held tfartsceiuer that has huilt-in CTCSS. This fealure may be 
pf&gramrned for any 39 siarciard ElA tones, f requsfwy range 
13«,0O0 ro 174.000 MHz. The lull functlor, DTWF compatiye 
keypad aiso allows for DTyF Encode/Decode arKi programmable 
AMI. Weighing only 15.5 oj., il features programmable synthe- 
sized trequecwies eilher simpSex of half dupiex in 2,5 KHi, Incfe- 
menls. Other fealures include PC programming and cloning 
capabilities, scanlisi, prioritychanneJ,sele€]able scan delay, 
s^eclabla 5 wait/l wa« power levels, liquid cr^'stat 
. display , lime-out timer arid nurch more. When you ofder 
the MPV32 from CEI, you'il get a complete package 
deal deluding antenna, 700 ma battery [ackf $20.00 lo 
sub^litde a 1 0OO ma batlefy), battery charger, belt clip 
ajid usef operating instructions. Other useful accesso- 
ries are available. A heavy duty leather carrying case 
I wil h swivel belt loop part #LCMP t& $49 .95 ; rapid charge 
I battery charger, part ^BCMP Is $89.95; speaker/micro- 
I phone, part #SMMP is$54,95; exlia high capacity 1 0OO 
■ ma. ni'Cad battery pack, part #BPHP1 is 179.95; eirtra 
700 ma. nhcad battery pack, part #BPHP7 is $59.95; 
; cloning cable part #CCMP is $34.91}; PC programming 
jkN, part #PCKIT030 is $224. 3-5. A UHF version with a 
i frequency range of 450-490 MHz part #MPU32 is on 
speciaf for $299.35. Your RELM radio transceiver is 
Ideaf lor many differeni appltcations since il can be programmed with just 
a scneiNdriver and programming instruclions In tess than 10 minutes. 
Programming is even faster with tfse opiional PC kil. The programming 
instructions part #PIMPV is $1 9.00. Call 1 -aoO-USA^SCAN to order. 

Bearcat®895XLT-A1 Radio Scanner 

Mg. suggested list price $729.95/Special $194,95 
300 Channels • 10 banks • Built-in CTCSS • S M^ter 
Size: 10-1/2" Wide x 7-1/2" Deep t a-3/S" High 
FfequBncy€ovemgm2%SM-USm MHz., 108.000-174 MHz., 
216.000-512.000 MHz., flO6.00O'S23.995MHz..849.01 25-868.9^ 
MHz., 894.0125-956.000 MHz. 

The Bearcat &95XLT ts superb for irtsrcepting irurtced commu- 
nications transTTiissiorts with features iike TurboScart™to search 
VHF channels at 100 steps per second This base and mobile 
scanner is also ideal lor intetltgence professionais because it has 
a Signal Strength Meter, RS232C Pol to allow computer-control of 
your scanner via optional hardware and 30 trunking cJiannel 
indicator annurtciators to show you real-tlnie t ru nking activity for an 
entire tnjnking system. Other features include Auto Stare - 
Aulomatically stores all actiive frequencies witfifn the specified 
banlc(s). Auto Recording- Lets you record channel activity from 
tlie scanner onto a tape recorder. CTCSS Tom Bo3nf{ZmXym^ 
ous Tone Control Squelch System) a IJ owe the squelch to be broken 
during scanning only wtien a correct CTCSS tone is received. For 
maximum scanning enjoyment, order the loHovwng optional acces- 
sories: PSOOI Cigarette lighter power cord lor temporary operation 
from your vehicle's ctgarette lighter $14.95; PS0CI2 DC power cord 
- enables pe rmanent opa ration from you r vehicle's fuse box $1 4.95; 
HB001 Mobile mountirtg bracket $1 4.95; EX711 External speaker 
with mounting t>racket & 1 teet of cable with plug attached $1 9,95. 
The BCB95XLT comes with AC adapter, telescopic antenna, 
owner's manual and one year limited Uniden warrartly. Not com- 
patible w^th AGEIS, ASTRO, EOACS, ESAS or LTJ^ systems. 

■save $70 

on one 

Save $70 when you purchase your Bearcai 245XLT scanner dire^lly I 
hom Communications Electronics Inc. For la$( deli\'&ry , enler your order 

I !h rough csurweb sNehttpy/www'.usascan.ccjfn orcaitCcHmmuniwitions ■ 
Electronics at 1 -aoO-U S A-SC AN . TERMS : Good ooly in U S A & Canada . | 
Only one coupon is redeemable per purchase. Void where pfQt>ibit&d. 

^V ^^^H ^^^H -^^^H ^^^H ^^^H ^^^V ^^^H ^^^H -^^^H ^^^H ^^^H ^^ 

Bearcats 245XLT-A TrunkTracker 

Mfg. suggested list price $429,95/CEi price $269.95 
Im Channels * tO banks • Trunk Scan and Scan Lists 
Trunk Lockout * Trunk Delay • Clonmg Capability 
10 Priority Channels * Programmed Senrice Search 
Si2e: 2-1/2' Widfi x 1^4" Deep x 6^' Hi9h 
Frequency Covfffsge: 

£9.000-54,000 MHr,, 10S 174 MHz. 406-512 MHl., 806-323.995 MHz.. 
849.01 25^Sa.995 MHz., 894.01 2&-856,0O0 UHz. 

Our new Bearcat TrunkTracker BC245XLT, fs the worfcfs 
first scar>ner designed to tmck Motorola Type I, Type II, 
tninkjng systerrs on any t>and, Now, follow UHF High Band, 
UHF 800/900 MHz trunked public safety and public service 
systems just as if conventional two-way communications 
were used. Our scanner offers many new benefits such as 
Multi -Track -Track more than one trunking system at a flme 
and scan conventional and trunked systems at the same time. 
300 Channel* - Program one frequency into each channel. 
12 Bands* 10 Banks - Includes 12 bands, with Aircraft and 
600 MHz. 10 banks with 30 channels each are useful for 
storing similar frequencies to maintain faster scanning cycles 
or for storing all the frequencies of a Injnked system. Smart 
Scanner- Automatically program your BC245XLT wrlh ail 
the frequencies and tmnking talk g rou ps f or y ou r local area by 
accessing the Bearcat national database with your PC. If you 
do not have a PC simply use an extemal modem. Turbo 
Search - Increases ttie search speed to 300 steps per 
second when monitoring frequency liands with 5 KH2. steps, 
10 Priority Channels -You can assign one priority channel 
in each bank. Assigning a priority channel allows you to keep 
track of activity on your most important channels while moni- 
toring other channels for transmissions, Preprogrammed 
Service (SVC) Search - Albws you to toggle through 
preprogrammed police^ fire/emergency, railroad, aircraft, ma- 
rine, and weather frequencies. Unique Data Skip - Allows 
your scanner to skip unwanted data transmissions and re- 
duces unwanted birdies. Memory Backup - If the battery 
completely discharges or if power is disconnected, thejre- 
qtiencies programmed in your scanner are retained in^ 
memory. Manual Channel Access -Go directly to any 
channel. LCD Sack Light - An LCD light remains on 
for 15 seconds when the back light key is pressed ► 
Autolight - Automatically turns the backlight on, 
when your scanner slops on a transmission. Battery/ 
Save - In manual mode, the BC245XLT aulomati-, 
cally reduces its power requirements to extend the 
battery's charge. Attenuator - Reduces the sig- 
nal strength lo help prevent signal overioad. The^ 
BC245XLT also wor1<s as a conventiorral scan- 
ner. Now it's easy tocontinuously monitor many 
radio conversations even though the message 
is switching frequencies. The BC245XLT 
conies with AC adapter, one rechargeable 
bng (ifeni-cad battery pack, bettdip, flexible 
njbber antenna, earphone, RS232C cable, 
Trunk Tracker frequency glide ^ owner's 
manual and one year limited Uniden warranty. Not 
compatible wflh AGEtS, ASTRO, ESAS or LTR systems. 
Hear more action on your radio scanner today, Order on-line 
at http;// for quick delivery. 

Have fun aiKJ use our CB, GMRS, shortwave and commercial 
radios to keep In toucli with Ihe world, friends and [amily- 
Cobra 143GTL-A3 SSB CB'SPECIAL ....„.,„„,„„,..... $1 14.95 

Maxon HCB40WX handheld CB with 10 weather ch $69.95 

RELIVi RH£56NB'A 25 watt VHF mobile transceiver $2B4.95 

RELM SMV4099W-A 40 watt VHF mobile transcaiver .. S349.95 

RELM RMveOS-A 60 watt VHF mobile transceiver $699.95 

Unirfen GRANTXL-A SSB CB Mobtis $1 24.95 

Sangean ATS9O0-A shortwave receiver .$229.95 

Sangea n ATS8 1 BCS-A she rtwave rece i ver » S 1 99 J5 

Monitor fire^ police, wedther, marine, medical p aircraft and 
other transmissions with your radio scanner from CEL 

AOR&200B-A wideband handheld scanner/SPEClAL $519.95 

AOR5000+3-A desktop receiver wilti synch AM/AFDWB .. $2,399.95 
AOR AR 16BQ wideband handheld scan with quick charger .$209.95 

Bearcat 9QO0XLT-A 500 channel base^/mobile scanner $344.95 

Bearcat 896XLT" A 1 300 ch. TrunkTracker base scanner $194.95 

Bearcat 278CLT-A 100 ch base AM/FW/SAME WX alert $169.95 

Bearcat 248GLT-A 50 cfi.base AM/FM/wealher alert scanner S99.95 
Bearcat 245XLT-A 3M channel TrunkTrackef 11 scanner ..,..$269,95 

Bearcat Sportcat 200 alpha hancfheid sports sc^anner ....$184,95 

Bearcat Sportcat 160B handheld sports scanner $149.95 

Bearcat 80XLT'A2 50 channel handheld scanner $109.95 

Bearcat SDXLTI-A 30 channel handheld scanner „ S79.95 

Bearcat BCT12A2 Stormiracker info mobile scanner .$144.95 

Bearcat BCT7-A informatf-on mobile scartner , $149.95 

ICOM1CR8500-A^ wNd^and communications neceivw ,..,$1,499,95 

ICOM PCRIOOfl-AI computer communKations scanner $399.95 

ICOM R10-A1 handheW wideband communicafons rec. $339.95 

AOR» AR8200B Radio Scanner 

j. suggested list price $799.95/8 pec la I $519.95 
1,0DD ChanrveEs ■ 20 banks * 5Q Select Scan Channels 
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Big-Time Bench Supply 

continued from page 1 

SCRL continuously conlrols the volt- 
age al CI , so thai the voltage across Ql 
remains at a coosLanl level. TTie output 
regulator U2 is a high-performance 
circuit that is capable of supplying 
0,1 percent regulation. 

Synchronized to the 1 20 Hz rectified 
AC input, preregulator Ul Is designed 
as a time-delayed pulse generator that 
controls the gate of SCR 1, which trig- 
gers conduction at the exact point in 
time required during each half cycle. 
The bias potential applied to the in- 
verting (pin 4) input of Ul is control- 
lable by trimpot R9. Tliis potentiometer 
determines the fixed reference level 
for the supply. 

The zener-regulated source at pin 6 
of Ul also supplies current through 
R14, R15. Rl 8, and C4 at pin 5 of U 1 
(non-inverdng input). The cuiTenl con- 
tinues to flow until the reference po- 
tential is exceeded. At this time, Ul 

60 — 


45 — 








\j ^^ 

^ W} £,C 


Fi^. 2, Y-axis shows SCR anode voltage. 
SCR event sequence: /. SCR2 triggers as 
C7 charges: C4 then discharges and Ul 
cuts out. 2. DJ5 limits potential on C7; 
then SCR2 cuts out and C4 begins to 
charge. 3. Capacitor C4 has charged 
apove reference level at pin 4 ofUL caus- 
ing the IC to conduct: a trigger pulse at 
pin 10 tinns on SCRI through capacitor 
CIL 4. SCRI current decreases as capaci- 
tor CI potential increases: when the po- 
tential across SCRI is insufficient to main- 
tain appro.xiinately 10 mA, the current 
through SCRI cuts out. Note: SCRI con- 
ducts on and ojf at approximately #3 and 
#4 on the curve when the output load is 
drawing 3 amperes at 35 volts. With no ex- 
ternal load, events #i and 04 occur near 
the end of the waveform, as Indicated by 
the imniarked dots on the curve. 

12 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 

conducts. The resniting square- wave 
pulse from pin 10 of the integrated cir- 
cuit is limited to 9 volts l:>y cuiTent- 
sensing resistors R[2 and R13, and is 
sufficient to trigger the gate of SCRI 
into conduction. 

The RC time constants in the circuit 
are controlled by the amount of current 
flowing through transistor Q3, which 
in turn depends on the voltage error 
present at the RIGA wiper Resistor 
R16 and diodes D7 through DIO make 
up a voltage divider that applies a con- 
stant 2.4 volts to the emitter of transis- 
tor Q3, so that when the base of Q3 
goes above 3 volts, that will present a 
voltage drop across resistor R14 and a 
con-esponding change in the RC time 
constant, C5 and C6 provide stability 
for the proper operation of Q3 to pre- 
vent SCRI from triggering en^atically. 
When the wiper of R 1 is rotated CCW, 
R17 and D13 prevent damage to Q3 
and D 12. 

The method of synchronizing Ul to 
the rectified supply input is illustrated 
graphically in Fig. 2. Triggered into 
conduction by the positive-going volt- 
age waveform, SCRI cuts out when 
the gate voltage stops and capacitor C4 
discharges sufficiendy to reduce to a 
minimum the holding current to the 
SCR. The diagram also reveals why 
the secondary voltage from T I must be 
greater than would be normal in a con- 
ventionally regulated power supply. 
The SCR cannot conduct until its an- 
ode is more positive than its cathode. 
Simultaneously, a minimum latching 
current must flow as well. Also, SCRI 
must remain conducting until the en- 
ergy drawn from capacitor CI by tlie 
output load is replenished. 

Since the voltage across capacitor 
CI will be about 40 volts at maximum 
output load, the 18-voIt difference al- 
lows the time interval necessary for 
maximum current. This also means that 
SCR 1 triggers only near the peak of 
the wavefoiin or on the negative-going 
side of the waveform. The minimum 
holding cun:ent required by SCRI is 
supplied by bleeder resistors Rl and R2. 

The dual potentiometer RIOA and 
RIOB establishes feedback to both IC 
voltage regulators, RIOA and RIOB 
should be evenly matched, so a 

wirewound potentiometer is used be- 
tween the two regulator sections. This 
is done so an identical voltage is al- 
ways present across each section of the 
pot. The wiper voltages should be very 
nearly the same at any setting. The po- 
tentiometer RIOB section samples the 
output voltage and directs U2 in the 
proper direction to maintain 3 volts be- 
tween the wiper and ground. The RIGA 
section samples the voltage across ca- 
pacitor CI, controls the triggering of 
SCRK and also maintains 3 volts be- 
tween the wiper and ground. 

Since the voltage at the CCW ends 
of RIOA and RIOB have to be the 
same, the voltage across capacitor CI 
will be 6 volts higher than the output 
because of the effect of D12, Any 
change in the output voltage and/or 
current will alTect the triggering-pulse 
timing at the gate of SCRI, maintain- 
ing a constant voltage across ti'ansistor 

Testing and alignmeiit 

To compensate for component toler- 
ances, Ul has to be initially aligned. 
To accomplish this task, you will need 
the use of an oscilloscope, high imped- 
ance DMM, and an improvised load on 
the output. Rotate RiO CCW, and set 
tiimpot R18 to maximum resistance 
and trimpot R9 for maximum voltage 
gain at Ul (pin 4) before turning die 
power supply on. Comiect the oscillo- 
scope between TPl and ground. Also 
connect a DMM between TP2 and 
ground. Then apply power to the sup- 
ply. Now a small voltage should ap- 
pear at TP2, but the oscilloscope 
should show that SCRI is not conduct- 
ing. Kbeping the voltage reference 
level as high as possible at pin 4 of Ul, 
adjust R18 and R9 until SCRI triggers 
at a regular rate and the DMM shows 9 
volts at TP2. When RIO is rotated 
completely clockwise, the DMM 
should show 40 volts at TP2. Place a 
jumper wire across R5, temporarily 
shoiting it out, and then momentarily 
place a 12 ohm 150 watt power resistor 
or some other parallel combination 
equivalent across the supply output 
connected to BPl and BP2. If the TP2 
reading on the DMM decreases more 

than 0.2 voli, or if SCRl triggers in- 
termittently, then adjust R9 only 
enough to correct it Then, with ihc 
load resistor (12 ohm) removed from 
the output, rotate RIO CCW. The 
DMM reading at TP2 should sluwly 
decrease to 9 volts. If it does not, ad- 
just irimpoi R9 for a higher voltage at 
pin 4 of Ul until it does. 

Rotate RIO once again and apply 
the load, compensating for the volt- 
age decrease by adjusting irimpot 
R18, There will be some combination 
of the two adjustments thai will al- 
low transistor Q3 to hold control over 
Ul throughout the specified current 

and voltage ranges. To achieve this, 
transistor Q3 must always be forward 
biased; if at any time Q3 does not draw 
the proper current through R14, it has 
lost control 

Correct alignment will be accom- 
plished when the voltages at the wip- 
ers of RIOA and B are the same at 
any output setting. To test this fur- 
ther, connect the DMM across tran- 
sistor Ql and note the voltage 
change when RIO is rotated clock- 
wise* Any difference should corre- 
spond with zener diode D12's vohage 
characterisdcs at bias cuments between 
1 and 7 mA, 

Parts List 


in. us 

iM723 voltage tegiiaior IC, RS #276- 


Two 10 V 1 W zener dkxfes in series 


2M3055 NPN transislof 


6V1 Wiener diode (1N1SD9) or (1N5733B) | 


2N4ai9 PNP transistor t5£6pNTC Ifl'^ 


Two 3 9V 400 mW zener diodes in sefieS 


2H2222 NPN transistor 


100 PIV& A bridge feclifler 


100 PJV 1 A silicon rectifier diode 1 mQQ2 


#5£6-NTE 5463 




1 N9 1 4 or 1 N41 48 general purpose sftoofi 


#526-hrre 5400 

Resistors — AU resistors are 1^2 W 5% untess otherwise noted | 


1000 Q 5 W !0% wirewound 


120 a 

R3, R21 



1800 U 




3300 n 


0^ S W wir^wciurid 


Two 150 ki2 resistors in paraJM 


4700QT W 



117, ms 



50 ka 10T fTiifKaHirB PC trimpot 

RSp R11 


R19, R20 

470 n 


6000 Li 10T miniature PC trimpot 


4300 in % 


1 &000 LI dual wi rewound potentiomeler 


3200 1% 




Dual 5000 pF 75 WVDC efectrolytic can 


0,001 ^FoefBmicdsc 


1 00 mF /b WVOC e*ectrolytic 


1 000 |iF SO WVDC eiectro^c 


0.05 |iF ceramic disc 


1 pF 50 WVDC tantaljjm electrolytic 


' 100 jiF 16 WVDC electrolytic 


0.01 pf ceramic disc 


33 jiF 16 WVDC eleclrolirtiC 

Other Components 


120 ^MC dud pfimaiy. 36^^(0 VAC dual 
soiMiirtfiry aJ 3 A lrajtsfQm>er 


DPST switch (powe^ 


2 A sJo-bk) fuse with panef rnount holder 


5-way binding posts (t red, l tA^t^) 

F2, F3 

3 A sJo-bto fuse with PCB clips 


Panel-rrount test points 

Table /. Parts lisL 


1 12 Vdc 1 Amp Power Supplyi 

New 12 Vdc. 1 Amp table-top 

power sjpply. B\ack plastic 

case With rubber feet, 


2,3'" high.. 

6' input power 

cord. 6' 18/2 output 

power cord with stopped and tinned 

ends Output is 16 Vcic with no load, 12 Vdc 

wiiti 1 Amp load. Suppties aro new but have 

no labels or n\arkings. ^C R(\ 

CAT # DCTX*1213 *0'^ch 

10 for S50.00 • 100 for S4,00 each 

Motorized Potentiometer 
Duai 10K Linear Taper 

Alps Electric * 726T-10KBX2 

Dual 10K linear pot powered 

tjy a small reversible 6 Vdc 

gearftead motor Pol and 

Tiotor assembly are 1"* square x 

1 .T long exduding shaft artd 

bushing. 6 mm flatted shaft is 

0.5" long, 9mm threaded bushing. PC pins and 

mounting tabs for pc board mounting. 

CAT#MPOT-10K ^^00 

10 for S35.00 


Anti-Static Mat 

ACCO # 50944 
24" X 28" Static 
control mat Use 
with static sensftive 
computer equip- 
ment or as a 
surface for handling 
static sensitive 
SimpJy touch mat wtb any pan of body to dts- 
sipaie sialic electnaty build-up. Can be 
trimmed with scissors to fit work area- 
Includes snap-on grounding cord ^vnri 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 13 

Numti^ S4on your Fsedi3sck c^rd 

Secret Death Ray 

Or is HAARP a useful science tool? 

Donald Koehler N7MGT 

4819 E. 6th Ave. 

Anchorage AK 99508-2317 

The title of this article sounds 
scary, hul a quick .search on the 
Internet wilJ reveal sites with 
headlines about the High-frequency 
Active Auroral Research Project - — or 
R*\ARP — that are almost as scary* To 
this Itmg-time electronics technician 
with extensive RF experience, some of 
the initial reporting about the system 

seemed, well, just a bit sensational. In 

the past, this and other magazines have 
featured articles on the system and 
site that all had a common thread: 
The author had never been to the site 
in question, 

E^ en the Alaskan author of the infa- 
mous book Angels Don't ... has never 
been to Uie site. So, my wife and I did 

Photo A* Classic view of the HAARP antenna field. Transmitters are housed in the large 

whiw vans, 

14 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

something most writers about the 
HAARP system have failed to do — 
wc drove up to the site and looked 
things over 

The government liaison to the site is 
a ham himself, and we set up a tinie 
when we would both be open to visit. 
He has helped to get several listening 
tests produced — more on this later* 
The HAARP site is located just over 
150 miles north of Anchorage. It wa^ a 
very pleasant three-hour drive on a 
cold, sunny day in die winter of '98 to 
get to the site for a visit. Wc had ar- 
ranged to be on site just before ihe 
start of the first listening test. 

The site was easv to find due to the 
large — and empty — generator build- 
ing found on site. The location had 
originally hosted a ^'Relocatable Over 
the Horizon" radar system for the US Air 
Force, but now it is used by scientists to 
study the upper atmosphere. 

Given that the system has been 
granted almost cult status as« among 
other things, an ultra- top-secret CIA- 
operated mind control device, we were 
surprised to find no discernible physi- 
cal security. For example, the gate lo 
the site was open and deeply buried in 
snow, so even to close it would have 

Photo B, Close-up view of the antenna field Note the ground 
counterpoise for the antennas to ** steer against. " 

Photo C. Detail of the phasing elements on the antenna towers; 
the antennas and their feed are phased for directional control. 

required a lot of digging. Little matter, 
as the snow was over the top of the 
fence and you could walk in anytime, 

As we drove farther into the site, we 
found a couple of small buildings and 
a cluster of older mobile homes. After 
a quick look around, we found a small 
^'Entrance" sign by a door and made 
our entrance. The door was unlocked, 
by the way. We wandered around for 
several minutes calling loudly — and 
finally made contact with Ed, the ham 
(and government agent) we had talked 
to in setting up the visit 

He gave us a complete tour of the 
site, opened every door we asked him 
to, and allowed us to photograph any- 
thing we desired. I worked in classi- 
fied areas while in the miliiary, and I 
can tell you thai this HAARP site had 
nothing thai could even remotely be 
considered classified. So much for the 
"mind control/doomsday box" myth. 

What we did see was straightfor- 
ward, high-power HF transmitters and 





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Photo D, A control panel: this unit controls the phase of the feed 
to the antenna set. 

Photo E, Mary examines power pentode and finds no markings in 

Klingon — just Varian, 

ihe electronically sieerable antennas 
— the same \iew, by the way, Ihat you 
can find on the HA ARP Web site. 

My wife Mary ha;^ an abundance of 
common sense. While not technically 
nriL?nted. she can .smell a rat a mile 
away. She gave these guys a clean bill 
of health. I have a 30-year background ^ 

in electronics and a B, Sci, degree, and 
have spent a lot of years working on 
ver)* high-end military electronics. 
What I saw here was a site devoted to 
science, funded in part by the Navy. 

The site does contain several instru- 
ments of value to hams. These are the 
current recording riometer and a 

Photo F. Off-the-shelf PCs are used to control the system aiul tesi eqnipnieut. 
16 73 Amateur Radio Today » December 1999 

"waterfall"'type spectrum analyzer, 
both of which will allow you to keep 

ti^ack of the ionosphere from ihe 
Internet. It also has a ninning '*snap- 
shot" of the received signal levels for 
WWV on 15 MHz and 20 MHz, as 
well as the 49 meter SW broadcast 
band. All very useful. Find these at 
index,htmlhttp://vv3] and, specifically, 
you can find more information oe the 
ionosphere at [http://w3,nrLna\y.miiy 
project*;/haarp/iomndex.hlmil. For fiia 
they have a Webcam on site. You can 
see the current daytime weather in 
interior Alaska. 

The site has a variety of other so- 
phisticated RF test equipment — all of 
which can be accessed via the World 
Wide Web. The settings of the equip- 
ment are controlled via a computer 
bus. but the readings are available for 
your iise. In addition to the RF test 
equipment, a recording magnetometer 
is on-site to track geomagnetic distur- 
bances that may impact the iono- 
sphere, which has a direct affect on 
propagation. While nol a complete tool 
for hams in the CONUS, it is a solid 

Photo G. Some of the HP rest equipmem 
used on site to monitor the signal produced 

place to gather data to compare to 
uiher information sources focused on 
the CONUS. 

What impact does the siie have on 
propagation? The site has sponsored 
several Ustening tests for hams — with 
spotty results. Hxtm^^ in Alaska have been 
able to hear the site, and hams outside of 
Alaska seem to have had limiied luck in 
bagging it. Even when the site is in op- 
eration — for a campaign — 1 have no- 
ticed no effect to received signals here 
at my station. There is a greater impact 
to my station operations from auroral 
flutter than anything the HAARP site 
has produced to date. 

Photo L Another antenna used in liie science 
package found on-site. 

Once and if the site gets the funding 
to increase their power, I may have to 
revise this observation. The HAARP 
folks publish their transmission sched- 
ule in advance, so you can check with 
their Web page to discover their trans- 
mit times and monitor on your own — 
before, during and after the test. An 
HF beacon station or WWV would be 
best to listen to — I can't tell any dif- 
ference, but perhaps you can. 

The bottom line, after visiting the site, 
performing near-field RF level measure- 
ments, and talking to the operators and 

ContLaued on page 37 


"i* \ I 



Photo H. Antenna field used to support riometer. This instrument mil give a very good 
feel for the state of the ionosphere. 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 17 



comiiiued from page 4 

The head of the Rensselaer School of 
ManaEefneni loved ihe idea and vvanled 


10 implemem iL The next thing I knew, 
he'd inexplicably left. 


No matter how much the mobile 
phone industry hates it and is in public 
denial, two new studies have shown a 
clear connection between mobile phone 
use and brain tumors. Dn Hardell, in 
Sweden, has shown that there is a 250% 
increased risk of a brain tumor for mo- 
bile phone users. The situation is even 
worse for children and young aduhs. 
where their cells are growing faster than 
in older people and arc thus more suslciv 
tible to radio wave energy interference 
in their reproduction. 

Dr. Preece. of BriiituI University, found 
that a 20-minute use of a mobile phone 
changed people's ability to make 
choices that involve the visual coricx, 
the part of the brain wliich processes 

Dr. Georae Carlo* who worked for six 
years on a S25 million cell phone indus- 
try study, went on an ABC News report 
recently saying that there v\'ere two types 
of risk from using cell phones near the 
head. One is genetic cell damage and the 
other is tumor formation. To industry 
claims that scientists have found no di- 
rect evidence of risk. Dr. Carlo said that 
that was "actually quite shocking .„ 
knowing what has been conveved to 

If you are still using a cell phone, keep 
it short. Better yet, use the bag type with 
an antenna on top of the car. 

If you have been convinced that your 
HT or a cell phone held up next to your 
head can"t do any harm, vou're another 
victim of a con job. Ditto if you believe 
the power company propaganda that 
magnetic fields from their power lines 
and distribution transformers are sale. 

We are formnate that the leading re- 
searcher in the worid in this field is W. 
Ross Adey K6UL Ross has been fighting 
the power and cell phone industries, try- 
ing to let people know the facts, But the 
money, and therefore the media alien- 
lion. Lies with the affected industries. 
There is no constituency for safety. So 
money, as usuaL rules, in the media and 
with government agencies. 

If you're interested in reading Ross' 
testimony before Congress on the sub- 
ject, I've reprinted it for you. His testi- 
mony is backed up by his years of re- 
search, plus that of dozens of other almost 
unknown researchers. 

Yes, cell phones are causing brain can- 
cer Yes, police radar is causing brain 

18 73 Amateur Radio Tod^y • December 1999 

cancer, as well as testicular cancer, 
where officers rest the radar gun in their 
lap. Yes, kids are getting leukemia from 
power lines and transformers. Kids are 
particularly Milnerahle because their cells 
are replicating faster dian in adults, so 
the influence of magnetic fields on their 
cells is more evident. 

Yes, microwave and UHF energy will 
affect your cells, and not for the good. 
It's not so much the microwave energy 
itself that's doing the damage, but the 

Sure, your car will run fine if you 
only put a little sugar in the gas tank. 
At least for a while, but if you keep 
doing it, eventually the engine is going 
to stop. It's the same when we are poi- 
soning our bodies, whether it's with 
sugar or magnetic fields. 

Send me $3 for the reprint of Ross' 
Congressional testimony so you*l! have 
the facts (see page 63, item #34). It's 
powerful stuff, but it's being lost in the 
blizzard of power and cell phone industry 
PR dollars. 


The capitalist system seems to work 
pretty well. Well, it does as long as there 
is competition. But when some outfit 

manages to put its competitors out of 
business so it has a monopoly, the pres- 
sure to keep prices low and service high 
tend to disappear. In egregious cases, the 
government steps in and we have an 
anti-monopoly court battle, such as we've 
seen against Microsoft, and we*ve seen 
with AT&T and IBM. 

If Congress ended the post office's 
monopoly they legislated on handling 
the maiU we'd see prices dropping and 
service escalating. Look at the computer 
field, where prices have been steadily 
dropping, while the product has been 
improving by leaps and bounds. 

Then there *s the school monopoly, 
where the teacher's unions are fighting 
hard, spending millions on lobbyists and 
deceptive advertising to prevent compe- 
tition from charter schools or vouchers, 
and doing their best to make home 
schooling as difficult as they can. 

How about the medical monopoly, 
with the AMA and the pharmaceutical 
companies in bed with the insurance 
companies and the FDA^ providing us 
with the most expensive medical care in 
the world (by a wide margin), and one of 
the least effective. And all of this is with 
ihe connivance of Congress. 

Our government is a typical example 
of a monopoly, with the price of its ser- 
vices going ballistic, and the quality of 
service into the pits — with the IRS pit 

Lost & Found 

A toddler who got lost in the wilds of 
nonhem New^ Hampshire w'as found by 
a woman who dowsed a topographical 
map. Her help was ignored by the search 
officials, but the state Fish and Game of- 
ficers were persuaded to take her seri- 
ously and the child was found within the 
small circle she had drawn on the map. 

A retired judge who ha.s been dowsing 
for 35 years has found over 4.000 wells, 
Sseven missing persons and 150 missing 
pets- Another dowser has had 90% suc- 
cess in finding long- forgotten grave 
sites for descendants looking for their 

But then, if you are a skeptic, if s be- 
cause you haven't read the books by 
Owen Lehto, Chris Bird, and Bevy Jae- 
gers that I've reviewed in my Secret 
Guide to Wisdom. A good dowser can 
find anything, whether you beheve in it 
or not. Further, this is a skill that just 
about anyone can develop. 


While it's fun being a guest on the Art 
Bell (W60BB) radio talk show, I teel 
something like Ponce de Leon would 
probably have felt if he'd actually found 
the Fountain of Youth he was looking tor 
all over Florida, "Hey. I've found the 
Fountain of Youth!" To which his audi- 
ence would say, "Sure you have;' as they 
went back to whupping slaves and 
pickin* cotton, or whatever. 

About one out of every thousand Bell 
listeners gets in touch with me. Of those, 
about one in ten actually sends for my 
Secret Guide to Health, Considering that 
most catalogs pull about a 1 % response, 
with 2% being considered outsumding, I 
should rejoice at 10%. Bui Im greedy 
— not for sales of my book, which, for 
S5. is pretty much an ai-cost item, but 
greedy in that I \\ ant to help more people 
to live longer, healthier happier lives. 

Yes, I reallv have discovered the Foun- 
tain of Youth. It took several years of re- 
search, mainly because our so-called 
health care industry has done such a 
magnificent job of hiding the brilliant 
work of a few doctors. Plus, there's the 
political might of the pharmaceutical in- 
dustry, the insurance industry, Big To- 
bacco. Big Food, Big Sugar, Big Chemi- 
cal, and other Biggies to keep the irudi 
from being known. 

The nice thing about reading books is 
that they make it possible to learn from 
the world's lop experts, instead of from 
some pontificating professor who is far 
more interested in research grants than 
those blank faces in his lecture hall. Or 
from some grad student **teacher" who 
doesn't know squat. As I've mentioned, 

ill my four years of college I had exactly 
one interesting teacher The rest were 
busy repeating what they'd been taught 
a generation earlier. For instance, the sub- 
ject of quantum mechanics was never 
once even mentioned in any physics 
class! And this was in the 1940s in an 
engineering university! 

Oh, I can understand why 99,99% of 
the people hearing me would be skepti- 
cal. What Tve learned goes counter to 
what they've been taught to believe 
from earliest childhood* We believe in 
doctors. In hospitals. In chemotherapy 
and radiation for cancer We believe that 
U^ standard medical approach to deal- 
ing with arthritis, diabetes, and so on 
must be right. So who is this Wayne 
Green guy who is trying to say that this 
is all horse pucky? Who's this guy who 
is trying to teU us that merely by chang- 
ing our lifestyle we can get over virtu- 
ally any illness and add 30-60 years of 
healthy living to our lives? What a crock! 

I'm open to any ideas you may have as 
to how I can get the attention of the 
99.99% of the people who need help, but 
are blind and deaf to my message, 

I feel a terrible sadness when I see 
some bloated elephant of a woman head- 
ing for an aU-you-can-eal buffet for her 
fifth plate. I feel ii when I see hams at 
Dayton with grotesque bellies hanging 
over their belts. Or people hobbling 
along with walkers. When I visit nursing 
homes and see rows of Alzheimer's 

II wasnU until I did the research that I 
found out what's gone wrong. Like ev- 
eryone else I was busy poisoning my 
body with caffeine, mercury, root canals, 
NulraSweet, tons of sugar, and so on. I 
had no way of knowing what a sucker I 
was. I ate coffee and doughnuts at ham 
club meetings. I loved the free dough- 
nuts the Dayton HamVention provided 
in the exhibitors' lounge. Now I'm busy 
doing everything I can to repair the 70- 
some years of damage I've unknowingly 
done to my body. Il*s quite a reconstruc- 
tion project. 

Have you some suggestions on how I 
might go about increasing the percent- 
age of people I'm reaching with my 
message from 0.01 % to maybe 1 %? 

Oh, Fig! 

The Cleve Backster experiments with 
his philodendron that were reported in 
The Secret Life of Plants almost 25 years 
ago were TTCcently replicated using a fig, 
as reported in the Spring issue of The 
Aftierican Dowser. A freshly picked fig 
was placed between two electrodes that 
were connected to a galvanic response 
recorder When someone decided to cut 
the fig, as he reached for a knife the fig 

responded with a large pulse. Feeling 
sorry for the fig, he put down the knife, 
which resulted in a shoner galvanic pulse 
from the fig. 

WTien the fig was asked if it could be 
eaten there was only a very tiny response. 
It didn't seem to mind. 

Apparently distance doesn't make any 
difference, as reported by Backster. This 
was confirmed by Marcel Vogel, a senior 
research chemist for IBM's Advanced 
Systems Development Laboratories, who 
sent strongly focused thoughts to a plant 
in CaUfomia from Czechoslovakia. 

This would seem to be a wonderful 
area for exploration by kids looking for 
interesting science fair projects, 

Gofxl News! 

One of the more valuable books re- 
viewed in my Secret Guide to Wisdom is 
Chris Bird's Secrets of the Soil, which is 
a bam burner. Unfortunately it's been 

out of print, so when I got word from the 
ASD Bookstore, 430 Railroad St #1, St. 
Johnsbury VT 05819, (800) 711-9497 
(Wayne sent you), that they have the book 
in stock, that was great news! It's $20. 
The 442 pages are packed with fascinat- 
ing information, much of it smffyou won't 
find anywhere else. If you're looking for 
interesdng ftelds to experiment in or for a 
new product to sell, you'll find this a 

As a matter of probably no interest 
whatever, the old name for St. Johnsbury 
was Sanger's Mills. My middle name, 
which my dad used, so I didn't, is Sanger. 
My great-great grandfather came over 
from Vermont to New Hampshire around 
1820 and sctUed in Littleton. My great 
grandfather Sanger was a homeopathic 
physician — the town doctor. 

But don't let that stop you from reading 
this amazing book, okay?" 

Mare Bad News 

A fax from WA0KKC says that the lo- 
cal hamfest attendance as well as the ex- 
hibitors, both commercial and indi- 
vidual, were off at least 40% from last 
year and that 95% of those attending 
were old men. It looked more like a So- 
cial Security meeting than a hamfest, 
And who was everyone blaming? The 
ARRL! You can bet that many of the at- 
tendees and exhibitors won't be back if 
ihey try to run another hamfest next 

Unless you are able to get your direc- 
tor to stop trying to discourage young- 
sters from getting involved with the 
hobby, we're goners. Demand that your 
director come to a club meeting and 

Continued on page 20 








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continued from page 1 9 

explain why he has done nothing to get 
the ARRL to promote the hobby. 

When I got involved with amateur ra- 
dio the average ham age was 28 and 
thousands of schools had radio clubs 
that were busy recruiting new blood and 
getting them licensed. The League, un- 
der the secrel leadership of Mort Kahn 
W2KR, almost totally destroyed the 
school club infrastructure in 1964, and 
tt*s been downhill for us ever since. 

How bad is it? I gave a talk to a ham 
club near Boston, and I was the youngest 
guy in the place. 


A recent Danish report (no, not the 
pastry) of a survey of 4J69 34-year-old 
males found a close correlation between 
their mother's smoking during preg- 
nancy and their later persistent criminal 
behavior. The more the mother smoked, 
the more later criminal behavior 

Using Your H^d 

As A-Team*s George Pcppard used to 
say, "I love it when a plan comes to- 
gether" Well, I feel like a physicist who's 
just developed a Theory of Everything, ty- 
ing all the forces of nature (God?) together 
into one equation. Einstein's goal. Only 
this is a mental Theory Of Everything 
and it can, if you'll use it, change your 
life. And all it takes is five minutes a 
day! With an enormous amount to win 
and nothing to lose, 1 hope you'll put 
aside your usual skepticism and give this 
a try. 

Each of the pieces of the puzzle has 
been making sense. For me, it*s been 
someihiag like putting together a huge 
jigsaw puzzle (which I love to do — par- 
ticularly the wooden ones!). But, unless 
you've been reading the books I've been 
reviewing in my editorials, then recom- 
mending in my Secret Guide to Wisdom^ 
and thus keeping up with the research 
Tve been doing and the amazing things 
I've been discovering, you'll probably 
have a problem with accepting some of 
the jigsaw pieces T ve fitted together. 

For instance, one piece of the puzzle 
started with The Secret Life of Plants, 
where Chris Bird reported on Cleve Back- 
sier's research into plant-human com- 
munications, where plants were some- 
how able to sense what people were 
thinking. Then there w as J. Allen Boone's 
Kinship of All Life^ which explained 
how we can communicate with any ani- 
mal, and even with insects! In Chris 
Bird's Secrets of the Soil, he explains 
that farmers have been able to get 

insects to leave their crops alone just by 
conununicaling with them. 

I told you how I called Chris to find 
out what Cleve had been doing since the 
1976 plants book. Chris put me in touch 
with Cleve, and he, in turn, steered me to 
Brian O'Leary, who had been working 
with him on human cells. Brian sent me 
The Secret Life of Your Cells. Wow! This 
book confirms that every cell tn our 
body is in instant communication in some 
way with every other cell. And that's 
even when ihey*re separated by thou- 
sands of miles! Well, this sure helps to 
explain the many weird reptirts from 
people with organ transplants, and even 
with blood transfusions and all those 
iwins-reared-apart weirdness, 

I've reported just recently on Neil 
S lade's book. Mental Magic, but I 
haven't yet included ii in my Secret 
Guide TO Wisdom. In it Neil explains 
how you can get clouds to change their 
shape, just by willing it. No, it doesn't 
work every time, but it docs often 
enough to convince anyone who doesn't 
have a totally closed nfiind. It's a piece of 
the puzzle. 

In Secrets of the Soil Chris discusses 
the powCT of thought (prayer) to influ- 
ence the growth of seeds as well as 
plants. Prayer also is well known to help 
sick people to get better 

Then there's the work of Cqu6 (1857- 
1926), who had millions of people tell- 
ing themselves that "every day in every 
way I am getting better and better" The 
trouble with that was that it worked, 
much to the consternation of scientists, 
who in general don't want to have any- 
thing to do with the power of thought 

Scientists in general also don't want to 
know about the work of LB. Rhine at 
Duke University, where he proved that 
thought can influence matter. This was 
recently proven again by the PEAR Lab 
at Princeton, and further confirmed math- 
ematically beyond question by Dean 
Radin in his The Conscious Universe. 

After Art Bell had Neil Sladc on his 
show, Art decided to lest the power of 
his audience's thoughts. At the time 
Texas was dry as a bone, with wildfires 
raging. He asked his listeners to pray for 
rain for Texas, Almost immediately 
Texas had a record downpour, which not 
only put out the fireSj but flooded wide 

Art tried the experiment again when 
Florida was suffering from hundreds of 
fires, burning tens of thousands of acres. 
The resulting rain damned near floated 
Florida out into the Gulf Art has wisely 
stopped the experiments. 

You see how the pieces of the puzzle 
are starting to fit? 

Next came a letter with a tape from a 
listener who enjoyed hearing me on 

20 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Art's show. The tape explained how you 
can make major changes in your body 
jusl by positively communicating with 
it You start out by standing naked in 
front of a full length mirroL The most 
difficult part is telling each part of your 
body that you love it. Tell your anns that 
you love them. Tell your tummy the 
same thing. Your head. Your feet, and so 
on. Tell every part of your body that you 
love it. Then, every day, devote about 
five minutes to gendy massaging each of 
your body parts, reaffirming your love. 

Well, before you dismiss the idea, 
consider how cooperative someone you 
know would be if you let them know ev- 
ery day how much you hated them. You 
may hate having a big fat gut, but tell it 
you love it anyway. Tell it that every day. 
Then you* 11 see a miracle start to hap- 
pen. You'll start losing interest in eating 
that bowl of ice cream. Or that shce of 
coconut custard pic. You'll be looking 
for a salad bar instead of the usual 
McDonald's trough. 

After the trauma of my first divorce I 
started losing my hair. I've never really 
thought much about it. I haven't hated 
how I look, but then I sure haven't been 
proud of it either. One part of my body 
affirmation will be my love for my head 
of hair. Hey, and while you're about it, 
head, how about darkening some of that 
growing gray? My father and one grand- 
father had plenty of hair at my age. Dark 
hair My mother's father's hair turned 
white and thinned out when he was young, 
so maybe I can trigger my father's genes? 
I've nothing to lose. 

One thing I guarantee: If yOii follow 
through every day (not three times a 
week), you will see some amazing 
changes. Make notes and let me know, 

One more piece in the puzzle dropped 
into place when I heard the July 8th Art 
Bell show. He was interviewing Dr. 
Laura, who looks less than half his age. 
He just isn't aging. He explained that ev- 
ery cell in your body is in constant com- 
munication with your mind, so what you 
think of yourself comes across as orders 
from the boss. So, if you think you are 
ugly, you are going to be ugly. If you 
hale your fat body, you're on your way 
to being mistaken for a Goodyear blimp, 
If you have been convinced you are 
stupid, guess what? 

Doctors and scientists like to think of 
the mind and body as separate. They 
aren't Every cell in your body is part of 
your mind Every cell is in communica- 
tion with every other celL Backster and 
O'Leary proved that. 

Back when I first started writing edi- 
torials, almost 50 years ago, I explained 
that every physical illness had a mental 
component, and that if doctors would 

find it and decondition it, the illness 
would go away. No pills. No surgery. No 
shots. No return office visits. No further 

When personal computers came along 
25 years ago I explained in my computer 
magazine editorials that doctors needed 
a program which would help them iso- 
late the contributing mental component 
of illnesses. Using a sensitive ohrnmetcr 
circuit, it would be simple for a com- 
puter to isolate the triggering mental 
component so the doctor could decondi- 
tion it. As a mental repair technician 50 
years ago I had no problem isolating 
these mental triggers and eliminating 
them, just by asking a few questions — 
and people would immediately get 

Even Walt Disney has tried to get us to 
understand the power of the mind to im- 
prove our lives. One of my favorite 
songs is When You Wish Upon A Star, 
from Pinocchio. "When you wish upon a 
star, makes no difference who you are, 
anything your heart desires will come to 
you." The song has a powerful message 
— if you take it seriously, I did a short 
segment on a recent [www.rainreport. 
com] where I sang the song. F II bet that 
surprised the heck out of anyone who 
listened to iL, 

This also explains how and why pla- 
cebos work so well. If we believe some- 
thing is going to work, our cells are go- 
ing to take care of things from there on. 

If you are stilt in denial over your abil- 
ity to communicate with plants, insects, 
animals, and your body, I hope I can 
convince you to go the $5 for my Secret 

Continued on page 48 


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73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1 999 21 

Number 22 on your F&&dt>ack c&rd 

TV Tutor 

How to get started in SSTV. 

Henry Falkner ZL1 AAN 

8 Kapal Rd. 
Devonport, Auckland 1309 

New Zealand 

It's the usual story. You look at 
some activity, and you think, "I 
would like to get into that, but 
where do these guys hang out?'' 

The first thing is to get hold of a pro- 
gram. Your ATV group may hand out 

copies of EZ SSTV, which is a good 

start. If you are on the Web, try entering 

this for a site (called URL): 
One of the clickable buttons gives you 

a list of programs tbr downloading. 

Photo A, Author's home-made UART. 

22 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 

Most of these are shareware. They will 
work J but your transmission will show 
"UNREGISTERED," or something sim- 
ilar, in the header. Registering is not 
expensive, and you may get worthwhile 
support and updates. 

The programs need decompressing 
after downloading, for which you need 
PKUnzip. There are different versions 
of PKZip (containing PKUnzip) for 
DOS, Windows 3.11, and Windows 95/ 
98. Download also the instructions for 
your choice, and read them. Each ver- 
sion installs and works differently. If 
you cannot delete all the components 
of a PKZip installation thai you 
stuffed, you may have to re- install 
Windows. Been there, done that. On 
the Web, try: 


You may need an interface. As a rule 
of thumb, for a 486 computer or better, 
but without sound card, choose one of 
the DOS programs. Some programs 
need a Hamcomm interface. 

For reception, this uses an op anip to 
boost the receiver audio to RS232- 
compatible levels, which are typically 
±12 volts. For transmission, there is a 
low-pass filter. The serial port must use a 
'^Universal Adapter for Reception and 
Transmission" (UART), because it is 

Phata B* A very simple control screen, with one of my pictures 
after it was retransmitted back to me. 

used as an analog-to-digital converter 
for reception, and as a digital-to-ana- 
log converter for transmission. Most 
IBM clones have a standard UART 
chip, but a friend found that his com- 
puter did not The programs I have 
seen contained two circuit diagrams 
for this interface. I built mine on Vero- 
bo^^ in a box (Photo A). 

Since with the Hamcomm interface 
the computer does all the work of 
moving pictures between the radio and 
the screen, some programmers, like 
the author of JVFax, gave the job of 
converting between analog and digital 
signals to an external interface, such as 
the IVF2. This interface also allows re- 
ception of weather satelhte pictures di- 
rect. But it is getting hard to obtain, 
and there is a reason. 

Photo C The EZ SSTV screen with a simple video card. 

An increasing 
number of pro- 
grams, both for 
weather satellites 
and slow-^:an tele- 
vision, now use the 
computer sound 
card, preferably 
compatible, for 
conversion be- 
tween analog and 
digital signals. At 
a recent talk, Ian 
Ashley ZLIAOX 
said that most of 
these work, but 
some don't. He 
says that the main 
problems occur 
with laptops. If you are buying a new 
computer, try before you buy, 

SSTV programs contain the informa- 
tion necessary to get going, in ihe form 
of at least one manual. You can get 
something on ihe screen after just load- 
ing il^ program, but you do need to 
know how to connect the computer to 
the radio, and how to get the pictures in 
step with your panicular computer. 

There is one series of programs with 
automatic synchronization that use 
DOS and the Hamcomm interface. 
These are EZ SSTV and Pasokon, EZ 
SSTV is a free, stripped down version 
of Pasokon, which has additional fea- 
tures worth getting. All you have to do 
is to receive a succession of pictures 
andl the program tells you, il has 
sorted itself out 

The pictures are 
received and trans- 
mitted line by line, 
and each line has 
to start on the left 
of your screen. 
The program might 
look for the trans- 
miaed^sync pulse'* 
at the beginnijig of 
each line. UnfcHtu- 
nalely, many tioises 
aiKl clicks on the 
HF bands sound 
just like synchro- 
nization pulses. To 
get around this, 
SSTV programs 


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use the computer clock instead. With 
computers now in use, their clock 
speeds vary between 66 MHz and 400 
MHz, so your program needs to fmd 
that clock speed in the first place. 

Without "synchronizing the pro- 
gram," you may be able to receive pic- 
tures with some programs, but not with 
others. When transmitting, however, 
your picture may be so badly slanted 
Uiat your recipients may not even be 
able to tell you what is wrong. The 
motto then is, "If nothing else works, 
read the manual/' 

I don't use Wndows programs my- 
self, but I am told that aU of them need 
synchronizing manually, by adjusting 
ttie slant of pictures received. I under- 
stand you need to press an OK button 
when you arc sadsfied, so you don't 
have to do the job each time after 
switching on the computer. 

Another problem area appears to be 
the sound levels going to and coming 

ConHnued on page 37 

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73 AmatBur Radio Today • December 1999 23 

Number 24 on yQtsr Feedback card 

Why Not Renew On-line? 

Here !s how to untangle the FCC Web. 

If it's gelling close lo the time for 
you lo renew your ham license, 
you'll find that you have more 
choices availahlc to you now than the 
last time you tiled. This time you can 
renew on-line. And vou cAti do this 
within 120 days prior to the expiration 
of your license, As you may know, the 
FCC has been doing some consolidat- 
ing of its many forms, and the old fa- 
miliar 610 is going away. E\en though 
amateur radio is not currently part of 
the new Universal Licensing System 
(XJLS). the FCC does plan lo imple- 
ment the Amateur Radio Service as 
part of the ULS. You can read more 
about this at: 

less/News_Releases/I998/nr\v 1 8040. 

h tm] 1 and [ http://w w w. fcc .go v/ wlh/uls/] . 

Meanwhile, the FCC does have a 
new Jbrm, the Form FCC 605. It re- 
places several existing forms, including 
the 6 1 0. 6 1 OR, and 6 1 OV As of this urit- 
ina diouiih. the old familiar 610 was still 
available on-line. You can download 
the Form FCC 610 al [hup:// 
w%^^fcc.go\'/Fonns/Fumi6 1 0/6 1 (J.pdf] . 

If you use this fonn, you should re- 
new no sooner than 90 days before ex- 
piration of your license. But lel*s face 

24 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 

it, the whole idea behind the Internet is 
fast communications. So instead of 
downloading a form and filing it by 
mail, why not just do the whole pro- 
cess all on-line. You should note that 
once your license has expired, you 
couldn't use the Form 900, even if 
your grace period has not yet expired. 
Currently, our grace time is a very 
liberal two-year filing period. 

If you're good ai following links and 
have some time to kill you might just 

A few minutes on-line^ and 

you Ve covered for another 10 

years of exciting hamming. 

want to start at [hllp://www^fcc,gov/], 
the FCC home page. From there you 
can follow the various links to the help 
forms, download pages, and on-line 
filing. But lo save u little time, you 
might want to follow this article to 
speed the process up a bit- 
One of the first pages you'll wa^i to 
slop at is: [https://svartifoss.fcc-gov/ 
prod/e rpa/forms/900/900_HeIp. htm] . 
Here you'll find the instructions for 
filling out the Form FCC 900 over the 

Edward OrosAC3L 

2629 Sapling Drive 

Allison Park PA 15101 

[AC3L@ Home. Com] 


Internet. Prim this out first and have a 
copy in front of you when you are 
ready to file on-hnc. Also, as you visit 
some of the FCC pages you might 
want to download some of their other 
documents. Since the FCC has added 
pdf as one of the formats it supports 
for some documents posted al their 
Web site, you should read ab(Jut the 
Portable Document Format (,pdf files) 
al [http://w WW. him I]. 
This page also has a link for you to 
download a reader in case you don't 
already have one installed. 

As for the actual filing, the FCC has 
provided links to their Form FCC 900 
for electronic filing. To file on-line 
with form FCC 900, just connect to 
[hltp://wv^ file/]. From here 
you can choose from two modes. 
There is both a normal mode and a se- 
cure mode in which lo file. Just follow 
the links License Renewal (Form 900)/ 
Nonnal Mode or /Secure Mode. 

Choosing the normal mode link will 
lake you to [hup ://s 
8080/cgi -bi n/w s .exe/prod/efpa/f orms/ 

The Secure Mode links to [https:// 

Should you find these linlcs to be 
bogged down by the raitlions of people 
followieg this article, you can also get 
to the FCC 900 form via this FCC link: 


Here^ under the heading of Elec- 
tronic Forms, the following two sites 
(Site #1 and Site #2) also poini to the 
form. The first is actually a repeat of 
the path I just mentioned above, and 
both seem to be secure connections to 
the form; 

900_Form,hts] and 

ws.exe/prod/efp a/ forms/900/ 

If you're not sure when your license 
expires, you can still use this site to 
receive that information, too. Simply 
enter your callsign and click the ''Con- 
tinue" button. You'll receive a message 
similar to this one if it is too early: 

Callsign AC3L expires on Jun 8 
2009 n :59:00:000PM, it is too early 
to renew. 

If you are within the renewal period, 
you'U be shown the Form FCC 900 on 
the screen. You should follow the in- 
structions you've printed out and an- 
swer the appropriate questions. With 
the instructions in hand, you should 
have no problem fiUing out the fonn. 
The only area I had a problem with 
was block #14. It asks for a signature, 
but all you need to do there is type in 
your name. It's really a very easy pro- 
cess to renew. You should also note 
that you're allowed to use this form for 
changing your maiUng address at the 
same time. Just enter your new address 
in item #4 and check the radio button 
in the Purpose of Filing box. (The in- 
structions said Box 11 but my form 
had it listed as 1 2.) 

After submitting your form, you 
may receive messages such as ''can't 
find remittance ID „/' or "A notice that 
a fee is required for each submission 
..." or even a message stating ''A fee 
may be required ..." and that you 
should "... please continue to the fee 
Form 159„/' I received all of these 
when I recently filed. These notices 
can be ignored if you're just renewing 

your license. The various fee require- 
ments can be reviewed at [htlp://] . As 
stated on this FCC page, "The regula- 
tory fees do not currently apply lo 

Amateur Radio Services (except vanity 
callsigns) „," I've reported the pn)blem, 
and hopefully these messages will only 

Continued on page 38 





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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1 999 25 

Humber 36 ort your Feedback cafit 

Read All About It! 

Part I ofTechno-Triviafrom The Hertzian Herald. 

Dan Metzger K8JWR 

6960 Steamview 

Lambertvllle Ml 48144 

Anyone who has ever QSOd G- 
land knows that our British 
cousins call a vacuum tube a 
valve, but did you know that they call a 
filler capacitor a reservoir capacitor? 
And they don't pul up an antenna, ihey 
put up an aerial — llic masts for which 
are held in place not by guy wires, but 
by stays. Also, they don't ground the 
antenna: They **earth" it. 

A Bril doesn't plug in his rig to the 
AC line with a line cord. He connects 
it lo the mains with a mains flex. If he 
needs lots of outlets, he doesn't ii*>e a 
cube tap or an outlet strip — he uses a 
trailing socket. And, of course, the 
mains are 50 Hz, 220 V. The standard 
on position for a switch in England is 
down, not up as in the USA. 

On the bench, Tommy (the equiva- 
lent of our ''Joe") uses not a proto- 
board, but a matri?t board. And our 
'^jumper wires" are his "wander plugs'' 
or ''flying leads/' He spells '*solder ' 
the same, but pronounces it SOUL -de r, 
not SAH-der, 

Reprimed with permission from The 
Hertzian Herald, newsletter of the 
Monroe County (MI) Radio Comniuni' 
caiions Association (MCRCA), 
26 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

The Aussies have a few tech terms of 
their own. My favorite is "Jack and 
Jiir* for our "Jack and PIu£." Others, 
w^hich you should be able to recognize 
from the above discussion, are: bucket, 
spout, hill hoist, deck, and fencing 

The lowly resistor 

We all know how to read the resistor 
color code — but do you know what it 
means when the first color band is 

Wlien is a resistor not a 
resistor? Wlien ifs a capacitor. 

double width? That indicates thai the 
resistor is not carbon, it's wi rewound. 

Sometimes wire windings can pro- 
duce enough inductance to cause real 
trouble at high frequencies, I recently 
measured a 5 ohm, 37 W wirewound that 
had 14 )iH of inductance. At fincquencies 
above 57 kHz. that 'Yesistor" has more 
inductive reactance than resistance. 

Some manufacturers reverse the 
winding direction halfway through to 
cancel the inductance. A 10 ohm, 20 W 
square wirewound I checked had less 

than 03 |lH- Still, you should never 
use a wirewound resistor as a dummy 
load E\ en 03 jlH has over 50 ohms at 
28 MHz, 

Have you noticed that 1/2 W and 
1/4 W resistors have changed shape in 
the last decade or so? They used to be 
perfect cylinders, but now they're dog- 
.bone-shaped, with little bulges at the 
ends. The cylinders are carbon compo- 
sition types. They have a central core 
of carbon mixed with clay. Best toler- 
ance with these rascals was about 5%. 
The dog bones are carbon-film types. 
They have a thin film of carbon depos- 
ited on the surface of a ceramic cylin- 
der, and easily hold a tolerance of 2%. 
You may see some of them with a red 
fourth band, indicating a 2% tolerance. 

Getting back to color codes, the 
companies had a fit about 15 yeai^s 
ago, putting out resistors with a fifth 
color band, almost always yellow. This 
was just hype, crowing that the resis- 
tors pass a militaiy-specified test wdth 
fewer than 0.001% failures per 1000 
hours. And speaking of military, you 
may see resistors with values stamped 
on diem — for example, 24 R9. The R 
is the universal decimal point in resis- 
tance, so it*s a 24.9 ohm resistor. 

When is a resistor not a resistor? 
When it*s a capacitor. Half-watt car- 
bon-film resifiiors have typically 0.3 
pF of stray capacitance between their 
leads. Half-watt carbon comps may 
have 1 pF, and 2 W comps may have 3 
pR Try to use a 91k-ohm and a 10k- 
ohm carbon comp to make a 10-to-l 
voltage divider at 14 MHz, and you'll 
get a division closer to 2-to-l, from the 
1 Ik-ohm stray capacitance across each 
resistor Try to make a 20 W, 75 ohm 
dummy load from ten 750 ohm, 2 W 
carbon comps in parallel, and you'll 
get a 30 pF of capacitance shunting the 
resistance. That's 37 ohms of reac- 
tance at 2 meters, and a 3-to-l SWR! 

Dit dit dah deh dft dit 

Forgive me if I indulge in two of my 
favorite topics: CW and the history of 
radio. Did you know that Samuel 
"F.B." Morse did not invent the Morse 
code? He came up with the idea for a 
magnetic telegraph in 1832, and had a 
working version by 1837. For a code, 
be envisioned sending only numbers. 
The first five digits would be repre- 
sented by one to five brief ON 
switchings of the current- He called the 
ON signals dots. For the digits 6 
through 0, he proposed to use again a 
scries of up to five dots, only these 
would have a much wider spacing be- 
tween them, since operators might lose 
count if ten dots were required. 

Every word in the language was then 
to be assigned a number, which would 
be sent to represent the word* Morse 
was neaiing completion of his word- 
to-number and number-to-word dictio- 
naries in 1844 when his assistant^ 
Alfred Vail, came up with a new idea 
Ibr a code using dots and dashes to 
represent letters. In fact, it used three 
ON lengths (dots, dashes, and long 
dashes) and four spacings (short or 
long spacing between elements of a 
letter, a longer space between letters, 
and a still longer space between words). 
This became the American Morse code. 
You can stiU hear some old-timers us- 
ing it on 80 and 40 meters. 

Most Old American Morse letters 
are the same as the new International 
Morse letters we are familiar with. 
Here are some that are different: 

C didit-dit 

F didahdil 


O dit-dit 

P didldidjdit 


3 (numeral) didididahdit 

question dahdididahdit 

Note that didit (short space) is I; dii- 
dil (long space) is O; and dit dit 
(longer space) is two letters (EE) in 
succession. The rhythm of the Old 
Morse C is familiar to us in the last 
three dots we send lor DE^ meaning 
FROM, A very long dash is letter L, 
which is also used for numeral 0. (If 
you thought it was a clever timesaver 
to send a single long dash for a zero. 
Vail thought of it a century and a half 

American Morse was the standard in 
the days of spark, and wasn't effectively 
replaced by International Morse until 
tubes took over about 1920. The sur- 
viving wireless operator of the Titanic 

If we could go faster than 
lights would time run back- 

(1912) compiained bitterly about res- 
cue operators who knew only Ameri- 
can Morse. 

Our SK, meaning End of Work, 
comes from American Morse. The nu- 
merals 30» long used by newspaper 
copy editors to mark the end of an ar- 
ticle, come out didididahdit daahhh in 
Old Morse. We simply closed it up to 
didididahdidah. Oiii ES for AND is not 
borrowed from anodier language, as 
many assume. Old Morse has a sepa- 
rate symbol for the ampersand (&), 
which is dit-dididit. (By the way, the 
name ampersand comes from a slur- 
ring of British schoolchildren reciting 
the alphabet and tacking on at the end, 
"and per se, and." Per se is Latin for 
"by itself.") 

Frustrated telegraph ops often sent 
DAMN, which they shortened to DN. 
To avoid trouble in a Victorian era, 
this was copied on the message pad as 
a question mark or a slash. In Ameri- 
can Morse* dahdididahdit is now the | 



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20 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 

official question mark, while for us it 
is the slash. 

Like the word HAM itself, the word 
LID, meaning a poor operator, has sev- 
eral contending explanations. One is 
that new Morse ops would attach a to- 
bacco can lid to their sounder to get a 
ring that could be distinguished from 
the clacking of other sounders in a 
crowded telegraph office. Another is 
that it is simply a contraction of 
LUteD, a slang tenn applied to an op- 
erator who had been taken out of a 
main office and sent to a backwater 
station where he could cause less 

For a closer, how aboot some CW 
infomiation you can use? If you've 
wondered how fast youVe sending and 
want a quick way to check il out, send 
OVER THE LAZY DOG (no period). 
There are 35 letters, equivalent to 7 
five-letter words. If you send it in 60 
seconds, that's 7 wpm — good enough 
to pass the Novice test with room to 
spare. If you send it (and receive it) in 
30 seconds, that's 14 wpm, and you're 
ready lor the General Do it in 20 sec- 
onds, and you're at 21 wpm — time to 
upgrade to Extra ! 

Which way did it go? 

The surest way to start a fight among 
electronics types is to ask which way 
current flows. It all started when Ben 
Franklin was corresponding with ex- 
perimenters in Europe about electric 
phenomena. Everyone realized that 
there were positive and negative "elec- 
tric fluids," which they called vitreous 
and resinous. They knew that these 
**fluids" flowed from one to the other 
— although no one could say which 
way. Franklin proposed the "conven- 
tion'* that ihey would speak of the fluids 
as flowing from positive to negative, and 
everyone agreed 

The telegraph was invented; Maxwell 
developed the electromagnetic theory; 
telephones, light bulbs, and electric rail- 
ways came into use — all explained by 
the ideas of electric fluid and Franklin's 
convention. Then, in 1898, Thompson 
(not Lord Kelvin; another Thompson) 
discovered the electron, and it soon be- 
came clear that the '*fluid" consisted of 

negative particles, and that (in a copper 
wire, at least) they flowed the opposite 
way from Franklin's convention. Be- 
fore 1920, it was clear to everyone that 
explanations of the vacuum tube made 
no sense at all using conventional flow, 
and many books began teaching that 
current consisted of electrons going 
from negative to positive. 

Still, the electrical engineering com- 
munity stuck with the conventional 
(positive-to-negalive) flow that had 
served them so well in the past. Pa- 
tience paid off, because when the tran- 
sistor appeared on the scene it had to 
be explained partly in tenns of *'hole" 
flow from positive to negative . . . just 
like conventional current. (To visualize 
hole flow, think of a bubble floating up 
in a glass of beer. Gravity pulls the 
beer down, which makes the bubble go 

Tcxlay, we have such powerful 
groups as the US Navy teaching elec- 
tron flow, and the lEC (International 
Elcctrotechnical Commission) teach- 
ing conventional flow. Some of the 
most popular Community College 
electronics books are actually avail- 
able in two versions, so they can sell to 
instructors with either prejudice. So, 
which way do I leach? I always answer 
that question with a little story: 

Three applicants were waiting or a 
job interview. One was a business 
graduate, and when he went in, the 
boss asked, "How much is 2 + 2T The 
business grad said, *'You have to con- 
sider the increased marginal tax rate 
when combining assets, so it is iikety 
that . . .*' The boss intiernipted and said, 
'That*s very astute. Wc'U call you." 

The second applicant was a math 
major, and on being asked the same 
question, he relied, "If you mean 2.000 
plus 2,000, then the true sum ties be- 
tween 1.999 and 2.001, but if you 
mean ..," But iJic boss cut him off and 
said, "Very intelligent We'll call you," 
The third applicant was a technician, 
and when he went in the boss asked, 
"How much is 2 + 2?*' The technician 
replied, "How much do YOU want it to 
be. Boss?" Of course, he got the job- 
Now, which way does current flow? 
Better learn both ways, and then be 
ready to do it the boss's way! 


f **That's unreal!" 

In the last section, I noted that the 
world of electronics is divided into two 
armed camps — electron flow adher- 
ents versus conventional flow (posl- 
tive-to-negatjve) partisans — and I 
attempted to steer a neutral course be- 
tween the two. Such fence-silting 
seems to anger some folks, who feel 
that electron flow is "the truth'' and 
that common sense should move all 
but the perversely stubborn to discard 
conventional flow as a manifest error. 

Ah, if only subatomic phenomena 
were simple matters of black and 
white. As a common-sense example, 
do you see the letters on the page in 
front of you? It is conventional and 
convenient to say that we see them but, 
of course, the letters are black and re- 
flect no light. We see the white paper, 
and don 't see the black areas that com- 
prise the letters. Shall we condemn all 
those who refuse to acknowledge their 
error and continue to speak of seeing 
the letters ''black on white"? 

Another example of mistakenly ap- 
plying common sense to subatomic 
phenomena is the assertion that AC 
doesn't "really'' flow through a capaci- 
tor, because the insulating dielectric 
prevents the electrons on one plate 
from passing through to the other 
plate. A zilUon electrons may flow into 
the negative plate, but it is different 
zillion electrons that flow out of the 
positive plate. If we could paint the 
electrons on one side blue, we would 
see no blue electrons coming out the 
other side. 

The error in this argument is that 
you can't paint an electron blue, or 
carve your initials on it, or distinguish 
it in any way. Every electron is exactly 
identical with every other electron^ so 
arguments based on suppose distinc- 
tions are nonsense — and AC "really" 
does flow through a capacitor, 

I often hear a similar argument from 
beginning physics students when they 
learn that time slows down at relative 
velocities approaching the speed of 
light They, 'Tf we could go faster 
than lightj would time run back- 
wards?" I reply that you can't go faster 
than light, because mass approaches 

infinity and acceleration under any 
force goes to zero. They come back 
with, **But if you could go faster than 
light .." Whereupon I am forced to 
answer, **Well, you can't, so let's stop 
talking nonsense." 

Additional absurdities crop up in 
discussing what an atom "looks" like 
— the color, shape, and surface texture 
of an electron, for example. To look at 
a single electron, you have to throw a 
photon of light at it, which will knock 
it silly. A single electron doesn't 
"look" like anything, nor does it have a 
surface texture or a color, both of 
which imply an arrangement of many 
atoms together 

We use mathematical models to 
describe how electrons behave in re- 
sponse to various forces, but human 
experiences of time, size, and weight 
have nothing in common with an 
electron. When we attempt to apply 
"common sense" to phenomena that 
are completely outside the realm of 
the common experiences of our five 
senses, the result is likely to be non- 


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73 Amateur Radio Today, 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1 999 29 

Nuint^r 30 on your Feedback card 

A Cold Meal and a Hot Radio 

That's what this XYUs OM now comes home to. 

Joyce Ann Seay AD4EX 

1105 Ridgecrest Drive 

Dickson TN 37055 

Everyone becomes involved in 
aniateur radio for her own rea- 
sons. When I first got involved, 
it was because my husband. Charles 
Seay KN4HL, was in\olved, and I 
wanted to see what ii was all about. He 
had been a ham as a youngster and had 
not been active for a long lime. After 
wc matined, both for the second time, I 
encouraged him to get back into ama- 
teur radio. I never dreamed at the time 
that I was selling in motion something 
that would have a profound impact on 
my life* 

Not Ions after mv husband eol back 
into the hobby, he and jsome other 
hams in our area started a club. I was 
surprised that there were some women 
involved, and decided to go to a meet- 
ing to see what was going on. I met 
some of the nicest people I had ever 
met. About that time, my husband first 
suggested that I might want to get my 
license, I wonder if he realized that he 
had opened Pandora *s Box. 

Back in those days, the only entry li- 
cense was the Novice Class. The 
theory wasn't bad, but 1 soon formed a 
distinct dislike for Morse code. Thanks 
to the Gordon West's tapes, I finally was 
able to pass my 5 wpm and Income a 
30 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Novice. I had no ambition to ever up- ' 
grade beyond that. 

My license had been framed and 
hanging on the wall of the shack, 
alongside my husband's, for about a 
month, and I still hadn l made a con- 
tact. He was on 10 meters one night 
and called me into the shack. He said 
someone wanted to talk to me, I reluc- 
tantly took the mike and had a brief 
QSO with a ham in Minnesota. To my 
amazement, people from all over the 
country started calUng me. I spent the 

/ soon had taken over the 

shackf and my husband had 

lost his radio. 

rest of the evening on the radio. That 
night I fell in love with 10 meters. I 
soon had taken over the shack, and my 
husband had lost his radio. 1 was per- 
fectly content with mv Novice license. 
At that time, 10 meters was open 
around the world, and I soon had QSL 
canls coming in from the four comers. 
As the saying goes, 'My husband used 
to come home to a hot meal and a cold 
radio, now he comes home to a cold 
meal and a hot radio," 

About that time, our area got a two 
meter repeater, Now all the hams were 
hanging out on tw^o meters, so I got my 
Technician Class license. No code to 
pass on thai one, so 1 v\ as happy. After 
i upgraded to Tech, I started thinking 
about GeneraL I had passed the 5 
wpm, so how hard could 13 be? Right! 
But as they say, *1"ools rush in," so I 

Once again, I was spending lots of 
time u ith Gordon West, Now my hus- 
band came home to a kitchen table lit- 
tered with code practice sheets and no 
dinner at all, I literally had code on the 
brain. Everything 1 saw I would trans- 
late into code, I even started dreaming 
about it. On my second try, I passed 
the 13 and got my General, I was one 
happy camper! 

Now, of course, I had to gel the Ad- 
vanced. Just theory. Well, the theory 
was getting pretty deep, bul I hung in 
there with the thought^at least there 
wasn't any code — and I soon got my 
Advanced Class license. I had gone 
from KC4RNX to KQ4n, I wasn t re- 
ally happy with my call, and my hus- 
band, always one to be helpful, 
suggested that if I got my Extra I could 

Continued on page 38 

Humtter 3 1 on fom Feedback card 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Part 5: Impedance and reflections, inchiding a ''kitchen table'' experiment. 

John A. Kuecken KE2QJ 
2 Round Trait Drive 
Pittsford NY 14534 

In the last part, wc dealt with tran- 
sients flying up and down the 
transmission line and saw the fact 
that a solid tenmination (being tied 
firmly to a tree) would cause a re- 
flecied wave to appear. In this chapter, 
we will be examining the effects of the 
line with a steady-state AC excitation. 
Going back to the telegrapher's equa- 
tion, let us make a substitution to sim- 
plify wTiiing some of the relationships. 
To begin with, let: 

eqn (5- 1 ) 

A = [t + (x/v)] 

This is simply a shorthand to sim- 
plify the printing of the equations. Note 
that we will chanac A. (backward) to 
A^ (reverse). As noted previously, 
equation (5-1) implies that the farther 
to the right we choose x, the younger 
or earlier will be the forward wave at 
that point. Conversely, equation (5-2) 
tells us that the farther to the right we 
choose X, the older the reflected wave 

will be at that point. Restating in an- 
other fashion, A. travels left to right 
and A travels ri^ht to left. 

Now, harking back to part 2 and 
Eoler's equation, we recall that we 
can describe a sine wave with the 

cxp(j*w*t) = sin(w*t) + [j*cosfw*t)] 


exp( ) is the log 

We had noted earlier that E^ and E^ 
could be functions of time. If we 
choose to make them sinewaves, we 
can write equations (4-3) and (4-4) as: 

E = Ef*exp(j* w*Ap + E^*exp(j*w*A^ 


i = (E/Z^,)*exp(j*w*A^) - tE/Z^) 

This describes the forward and back- 
ward waves at any instant in time and 
at any location on the line. 


Reflections on the line 

It seems fair at this point to ask 
where the reverse wave comes from* 
The answer is most senerallv from re- 
flections. It is possible to excite a line 
at both ends; however, it is seldom ad* 
vantageous to d^ so. On the other 
hand, any departure from the uniform 
characteristics of the transmission tine 
will geDeraie a reilection or a back- 
ward wave of some amplitude and 

To be sin with, let us consider the ex- 
treme case in which the far end of the 
line is short circuited and the resis- 
tance of the short is zero. It should be 
obvious that no amount of cunent 
flowing in the short will generate a 
voltage ai tlie short. Therefore, the re- 
flected voltage must completely cancel 
the forward voltage and must be 180 
degrees out of phase with it. or E = -^^ 
The current in the short will be twice 
the forward cuiTent. 

For the converse case in which the 
line is open circuited, the current must 
be zero, since no amount of voltage 
can make a current flow in the open 
circuit. To drive the current to zero at 
this point, we must have the forward 
and reverse current waves equal and in 
Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 31 

phii^c; therefore. E^ = E^ The voltage 
at this point will be twice the forward 

In the third case, where the termina- 
tion is a resistor equal lo the character- 
istic impedanLe of the line, there is no 
reflected wave and E ^ 0, As noted 
previously, no clccirical measiiremciu 
on ihc fine itself from the sending end 
can distinguish a perfectly matched 
line froin an iniinilely long line. I sup- 
pose that someone will point out that if 
the perfect termination on the far end 
of the line was an antenna, then we 
could receive the siiinal and, usinu 
some modulation scheme, determine 
the total time of tlighi. Picky! Picky! 

The quant it}' E /E^ is termed the volt- 
age refleciion coefficient. As we have 
seen, it can vary between a -1 and a +1 
and can also be zero. The voltage re- 
flection coefficient is usually repre- 
sented by the Greek letter Gamma 
Major, Consider the illustration hi Fig, 
1, It shows two vectors representing E^ 
and E^ rotating in opposite directions 
as a function of A and A . Since we are 
interested in the steadv-state coitdt- 
lion, we may drtjp the (j*w) term and 
concern ourselves with the long-term 

With a little thought about it, we 
can see that these vectors rotating in 
opposite directions at the same speed 
will fall atop one another twice per 

Fig. L Romtion ofE + E with A + A^. 

32 73 Amsiteur Radio Today * December 1999 

revolution and will oppose one another 
twice per revolution. In other words, 
twice per wavelengtli on the line you 
will find a voltage peak where E^ and 
E^ add. and twice per wavelength you 
will find a place w here they cancel and 
there is a voltage minimum on the line. 
The ratiki betvveen these amplitudes is 
commonly referred to as the VSWR or 
Vohage Standing Wave Ratio: 

VSWR = (E^+E)/(E^,^E^) 

VSWT^ = (1 + gamma)/(l - gamma) 

Note that with a little alsehraic ma- 
nipulaiion we can re-arrange equation 

(5-6) to: 

EyE.= (VSWR - 1)/(VSWR + I) 


Since both E and E, are across the 

r f 

characteristic impedance of the line, 
die power in the forw ard and reflected 
waves is proportional to the square of 
the \ oltages. Therefore: 

Pwt/Pwt^ = (VS WTl ' 1 )-/( VS WTi + 1 f 


Most solid state ham transmitters 
will start shutting down power at a 
VSWR of two or so. This coiresponds 

E^/E^ - (2 ' I)/(2 + 1) = 1/3 

Thus the power in the refledli^ and 
forward waves is: 

Pwr/Pwr^ ^ (1/3)^(1/3) = 1/9 

The backward wave has a ihird of 
the voltage and a ninth of the power. It 
is notewordiy that many of Uie very 
broadband military and commercial 
antennas — covering perhaps 2 to 30 
MHz or 225^00^ MHz — have 
VSWRs that seldom ect anv better 
than 2:1 or 2.5:1 The characteristics 
of log periodics and discones and trav- 
eling wave helicals include a VSWR 
diat simply does not get below these 
levels, hi order to obtain the continuous 

coverage (any frequency within the 
range), the mihtaiy equipment simply 
pttis up u ith the VSWR. 

Line impedance 

Impedance is defined as the ratio of 
voltage to current and we saw with 
our short circuit example that at the 

short circuit and every half wave down 
the line toward the source, or sending, 
end, the voltage is zero and the current 
is maxnniim. This corresponds to an 
impedance of zero. 

Conversely, at the open circuit the 
voltage is maximum and the current is 
zero, and this repeats itself ever) half 
wave toward the source. The current 
zero and voltage maximum correspond 
to an infrnite impedance. 

In this case, widi an inlinite VSWR, 
the impedance of die line is cycling 
between zero and inlinite impedance 
along lis length every quarter wave. 
Measuring with only a single frequency, 
it is not possible to Leil the di (Terence 
between a short circuit an even number 
of quarter wavelengths down the line 
or an open circuit an odd number of 
quarter wavelengdis down. 

When the VSWR is more reason- 
able, it is perhaps not quite so obvious, 
but at every voltage maximum the cur- 
rent will be minimum, and the imped- 
ance will be maximum and lurtliemiore 
will be a pin^e resistance equal to 
VSWR'^'Z^j, At every voltage mini- 
mum, the current will he maximum 
and the impedance will be minimum 
and a pure resistance equal to Zy 
VSWR. At all other points on a mis- 
matched line (meanins VSWR > 1), the 
imiK^daiice wiD have a reacti\'e compo- 
nent as well as a resisti\c component 

As an example of this, on a 50 ohm 
line tZ^. = 50 ohms), if we measure die 
forward power as being nine thties as 
great as die reflected power we know 
that the VSWR is 2:1 from equation 
(5-8). This would tell us dial at the 
voltage peaks the impedance is 2*50 = 
100 ohms, and at the voltage minima 
the impedance is 50/2 = 25 ohms. 

Fun with standing waves 

Having been through this discus- 
sion, let's have some fun with stand- 
ing waves. To do this, you will need 

a 2 meter transmitter of some soil, 
some lengths of RG-58 cable or 
equivalent, a length of TV twinlead 
cable, and a diode voltmeter We will 
be measuring the standing waves on the 
TV twinlead because it is easy to see 
them them. On coax, the standing waves 
are on the inside and not accessible 
except with a slotted line. 

The first thing to do is to build a 
balun to transform the unbalanced 
coax into a balanced structure for the 
TV twinlead. Do not neglect this step, 
because if you directly connect the 
coax to the twinlead you will have RF 
all over everything and will measure 

The balun shown in Fig. 2 consists 
of a half wavelength of coax bent into 
a "U" and allached to a coax line of es- 
sentially any length with a iltiing to 
connect to the transmitter At 146 MHz 
with RG-58 cable having polyethylene 
insulation, a half wave is approxi- 
mately 26 inches. If you have Teflon- 
insulat^ cable, the length is approx- 
imately 28 inches. Add about an inch 
for connections. You will find this job 
easier to do if you have cable with 
honest braid and not aluminum foiL 
Strip the jacket back a half inch on 
both ends of the "U" and the end of the 
feed cable. 

Connect the outer conductor of one 
end of the **U" and the outer conductor 
of the feed cable together with a wire 
binding as shown in the figure. At the 
same point, connect the inner conduc- 
tors together, being careful to avoid 
shorting them to the outer conductor. 
The TV twinlead will attach with one 
conductor attaching to *'A" and the 
other attaching to "B". 

If you happen to have a UHF direc- 
tional coupler, the assembly should 
show a low VSWR measuring on the 
feed cable with a 200 ohm carbon re- 
sistor between points "A" and **B", 
The resistor must be carbon or film 
and definitely not wirewound. If your 
transmitter power is more than a watt 
or so, it may be necessary to parallel 
several resistors as described in part 1 to 
obtain the 200 ohms with an appropriate 
power rating. 

Next, cut a length of TV twinlead 
about 10 feet long and strip about a 
quarter inch of wire on both ends* If 

you have a plank that length, you 
could tape the twinlead down every six 
inches or so. If you don't have a plank, 
you can stretch it out on a table. 
Don't let the twinlead lay on or cross 
a conducting surface. 

The resistive net is intended to pre- 
vent yoiD' transmitter from looking 
into impedances that might damage it. 
For mc^ handhelds on low power a 
one watt sixe will suffice for the 200 
ohm resistor, and half waU sizes will 
do for the 5 1 ohms. 

The final item is the detector. We 
would like to have a detector that will 
be sensitive to the voltage difference 
between the conductors, and insensi- 
tive to the voltage to ground that the 
conductors have in common. The com- 
mon mode voltage or common voltage 
to grotmd will arise only because of an 
imperfect action of the balun. It does 
not participate in the transmission line 
action and serves only to confiise the 

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73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 33 







Fig. 2. Half wave balmu 

1/2 by unc inch. With a .sharp knife, 
cut a slit clown the center and check 
with an ohmmeter to make sure that 
the two halves are electrically iso- 
lated ♦ The four diodes represent a 
bridge rectifier. 

You cannot use a made up power 
bridge or power rectiliers like 
1 N400x at two meter frequencies. The 
bridge works best widi UHF germa- 
nium diodes: how^ever it will function 
with high speed switching diodes like 
IN914\u 1N4146. A /!ero-to-l-mA 
meter movement w^ill function satis- 
factorily for the detector, and the re- 
sistors should be selected to sivc 
about a half scale readinji on a 
matched line. 

The foam guide on the probe is in- 
tended to hold the probe in a constant 
relationship to the line as wc slide the 
probe along the line. You probably 
will have better results if you firmly 
mount the components on a circuit 
board and provide a wooden handle 
to keep your hand six or more inches 
away from the line as you slide ihe 
detector alona. 


Fig. 3. The circuit. 

34 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Now the 

TV twinlead is 
nominally 300 
ohms in Z^; there- 
fore, let us start 

by terminating the 
far end ( away 
tram the balun) 
with a 300 ohm 
carbon or film re- 
sistor. Keep the 
leads as short as 
possible. With the 
transmitter run- 
ning somewhere around 146 MHz, 
you should have a reasonably flat re- 
sponse from the detector The meter 
readins should be more or less con- 
stant no matter where on the line you 
slide the detector Because of the rela- 
tive crudeness of the construction, do 
not be too surprised if you find a 
variation of 49?^ or 5% in the readimzs. 
Remove the resistor and leave the 
line open-circuited. This time you 
should find a very pronounced stand* 
ing wave on the line. Tlie voltage will 
be high al the open end and will fall 
sharply to near zero a quarter wave to- 
ward the send ins end and a half wave 
beyond that. Take some masking tape 
and mark the places where the voltage 
minima were, and identify that these 
are for the open circuit. 

Next, solder a short circuit across 
the end of the line. Don't just twist the 
wires — solder a jumper in place. This 
time the voltage al the short will be 
near zero and the next minimum will 
be a half wave toward the sending end. 
Mark and identify these as before. The 
distance between mininia should be 

the same for the 
short circuit case 
as it was for the 
open circuit case, 
and the minimum 
for the shorted 
case should lie 
very close to be- 
ing centered be- 
tween the minima 
for the open cir* 
cuit case. We will 
explain the "very 







Fig. 4. Tfte defector 

close" as opposed to "exactly" shortly. 
Next, lei us replace the short with a 

100 ohm carbon or film resistor. In this 
case, the VSWR will not be nearly so 
iiigh and, as a matter of fact, should mea- 
sure 3:1; that is, the peak voltage should 
l>e lliiiee times as great as the minimum 
and the minima should lie almost exactly 
on the marks for tlie short circuit. 

Finally, replace the resistor with a 
600 ohm resistor. In this case, the 
VSWR should measure 2:1 and the 
minima should lie close to those for 
the open circuit case, 


These experiments were intended to 
prove that: 

(I) The point of minimum voltage 
on the line is always resistive. 

(2} The impedance on tlic line at the 
voltage minimum is Z^/VSWR, 

(3) A line terminated in its Z^ has no 
standing waves. 

if instead of measuring voltage we had 
measured current, we could also have 
shown that the points of minimum cur- 
rent are resistive and equal to Z^ 
*^'VSWR. Our measurements paid little 
attention to finding the voltage peaks 

Continued on page 38 

Numi^r $5 on your Feedback card 

Need a UHF Dipper? 

Part 3: Mods for using the tuner as a dippen 

Hugh Wells W6WTU 

1411 18th Street 

Manhattan Beach CA 90266-4025 

Parts i and 2 of ihh i>cries pro- 
vided discussions regarding the 
theory of a TV tuner's resonator, 
frequency ineasuremcnl techniques, and 

how to couple the oscillator to an out- 
side environmeni. This is the llnal pari 
in the series, which will discuss the 
niodificalions tlial may be used lu utilize 
tlie tuner as a dipix^r, and to shift the op- 
erating frequency into an adjacent ham 


As pointed out earlier, tnodilications 
to the oscillator circuit should be per- 
formed only as required for getting the 
oscillator to operate within a desired 
frequency band. Tve assumed that 
most appUcations involving the dipper 
are for the 450 MHz band, so the em- 
phasis has been placed on attempting 
to lower the operating band* 

Bui for those who are interested in 
moving the dipper up intt> the 902 
MHz region, the mtxlifl cation prima* 
rily requires reducing the capacitive 
top loading marked as '"padding" as 
shown in Part 1, Fig. 2. Reducing the 
capacitive bottom loading will also as- 
sist in raising the operating frequency, 
but at a lower percentage of effect than 

that controlled by the top loading. It 
might be necessary, as a last resort, to 
remove capacitor plates in order to re- 
duce the top loading sufficiently to 
gain the desired upper frequency. The 
capacitor plate removal must be dune 
gingerly, to protect the ceramic insula- 
tors. In addition, applying the oscil- 
lator's supply voltage directly to the 
varactor's control tenninal may decrease 
some bottom loading. 

Each modification to be discussed 
will be progressive, starting wiUi tlie 
sijnplesl and progressing to the one re- 
quiring surgery. Again, surgery should 
be avoided if at all possible in order to 
preserve the dipper's integrin^ and op- 
eration, even if llie dipper remains a 
httle high in frequency, 

(l)The first modification is to solder 
a phono connector to the oscillator 
wall f refer to Pait 2, Hg, 2), The sense 
loop connection scheme will have to 
be worked out at this step. However* 
one of the schemes may be used tem- 
porarily while lowering the oscillator's 
frequency, as indicated in the step be- 
low. Once the operating frequency has 
been established, then the experimen- 
tation must begin to find the best sense 
loop scheme. 

(2) Increasing the top loading on the 
resonator can be accomplished by 
tacking a padding capacitor between 
the variable tuning capacitor and the 
top of the oscillator wall as shown in 
Fig. 1. A suitable capacitor, as shown 
in Fig, 2, has a value range from about 
0.5-15 pR Piston and small adjustable 
ceramic capacitors are best suited for 
this application, but disc ceramic and 
tubular ceramic fixed value capacitors 
may also be used. 

With die capacitor adjusted for mini- 
mum capacitance and tacked into 
place, apply supply voltage to the os- 
cillator and monitor the activity as ob- 
served on the meter Adjust the tuning 
capacitor to the lowest frequency, then 











Fig* i* Increase in top loading using a 
small variable capacitor. 

Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 35 


Fig. 2- Typical iri miner capacitor used for 
top loading. A suhabie capacimnce value 

is ahoin 0.5-15 pE 

raise Ihc frequency while observing 
the mcicr. If the meter indicaiion is 
low or zero at the lowest frequency, 
and then suddenly pops upward as the 
frequency is increased, then il*s pos- 
sible that I here is insufficient oscillator 

Not all I Liners fail when the capaci- 
tive lop loading is increased and the 
lowest operating frequency attained 
could easily be in the 43CM40 MH/ 
region. Assuming this to be the case, 
then measure the upper frequency to 
see that it i^ above 450 MHz. By add- 
ing top loading capacitance, the total 
tuning range of the oscillator will be 
narrowed because the percentage of 
total capacitance that remains variable 
is reduced. As an example of what 
happens, the original tuning range was 
perhaps 470-900 MHz. Lowering the 
bottom to, say, 440 MH/, the upper fre- 
quency may have dropped to perhaps 
460 MHz. II" die resulting tuning range is 
acceptable^ then adjust the padding 
capacitor slightly to center the tuning 
range within the desired operathig band. 

I've found that once the final pad- 
ding capacitance has been dctennined, 
replacing the variable with a fixed 


\ / 

\ / 

' \ I 







\ / 
\ / 


/ \ 

^ \ 

^ \ 

,' E 



\ I y 




Fig. 3. Adding indtictance (L) near the 
bottom of the resonator effectively lowers 
the resonant frequency, 

36 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1 999 

value capacitor of the same value 
works very wclL Typically, the capaci- 
tance value will fall \^'ilhin the range 
of 1-5 pE Disk ceramic and tubular 
ceramic capacitors are a good choice, 

(3) Some tuners have a loop of wire 
(or stamped metal) mounted near the 
oscillator's resonator The loop is 
grounded on budi ends, and as such 
becomes an inductor that is placed in 
the I field of the resonator for induc- 
tive loading controL Moving tlie loop 
closer to the resonator will raise the 
operating frequency, and mo\ing it 
aw^ay will lower the frequency. When 
modifying the uincr- dipper for the 450 
MHz band, the lt)0p should be pushed 
Hat against ihc metal wall. If the modi- 
fication is being considered for the 902 
MHz band, then the loop may be made 
closer, if necessary, to the resonator to 
increase the operating frequency band. 

(4) The fourth level of modification 
involves increasing the oscillator's 
feedback. A common-base Colpitis os- 
cillaton as used in a UHF TV tuner, is 
dependent upon the capaciiive cou- 
phng between emitter and collector 
terminals. Tve been successful in in- 
creasing the feedback with some tuners, 
while others appear to have sufficient 
feedback already and there is no addi- 
tional reaction to the increased feedback 

If it's necessary to increase the feed- 
back, locate the transistor's emitter 
lead that has a resistor connected be- 
tween the emitter lead and ground. 
Solder a piece of small wire (bare or 
insulated) onto the em i tier lead and al- 
low it to extend upward. The length of 
the added wire should be between 1/4 
and 1/2 mch. With powTr applied, use 
a thin wooden stick or plastic rod to 
n]o\c the tip of the wire toward the 
collector terminal without actuallv 
touching the collector Observe ihe 
meter and the indicated oscillator level 
as the wire is moved. If the level in- 
creases, then proceed some more. 
Moving the wire trom side to side 
while advancing towaj*d the collector 
helps locate the point of greatest feed- 
back. Rotate the tuning capacitor and 
observe the amplitude reaction. In 
some cases diere will be an amplitude 
increase across the tuning range, while 

in others, the amplitude variation swing 
will be greater. Choose the best com- 
promise for the desired band segment. 
Should there be no additional reac- 
tion or no reaction ai all or an adverse 
reaction occurs, then cease working 
with the feedback. Remove the wire 
lead if necessan^ to restore the "stock" 

(5) The fifth level of modification is 
to work with the capacilixe bottom 
loading. Some tuners have buiU-in pis- 
ton trimmer capacitors so that bottom 
loading can be used to "trinr' or posi- 
tion the frequency band. Increasing the 
capacitance value of the trimmer capaci- 
tor results in lowering the oscillator's 
frequency. Because the oscillator tran- 
sistor and the trimmer are essentially 
in parallel, increasing the capacitance 
value too much will "kiU" the oscil- 
lator's feedback. It may be desirable 
lo attempt increasing the feedback as 
indicated in step 4 above. 

When a trimmer capacitor is not pro- 
vided on the tuner, one mav be added. 
if desired, by tacking a trimmer be- 
tween the transistor end of the resona- 
tor and the edge at the nearest waif A 
suitable trimmer capacitance value is 
in the range of 0.5-3 pF, which is suf- 
ficient to evaluate the effectiveness of 
bottom loading. Care must be taken 
when working on the transistor end of 
the resonator because of tlie very limited 
space that is available. 

As an example, when moving the 
oscillator up into the 902 MHz band, 
should it be desired, a small measure 
of reduction in bottom loading capaci- 
tance may be accomplished by apply- 
ing a voltage to the varactor control 
tenninar Jumpering the control termi- 
nal directly to the +VCC lead will 
accomphhh the task. 

(6) The last modification, one re- 
quiring surgery, should be avoided 
unless it is the last resort, 

BEWARE! Performing surgery on 
the tuner may render it useless. 

To gain a perspccdve ol what^s re- 
quired, let's return for a moment to the 
theory of the resonator. We attempted 
to lower the frequency of the resonator 
by adding capacitive top loading, and 
tliat lailure required a more extensive 
modification. The next attempt lies 

with increasing the inductance value 
of the antenna element. Fig. 3 depicts 
the desired E and I fields that will 
support the objeclive. 

Again, in looking at the resonator as 
a quarter- wave antenna, the electricaJ 
length can be increased (lowering of 
the resonant frequency) by inductively 
loading the element. Inductance has 
the greatest effect on the antenna ele- 
ment when it is operating in the I field. 
The magnitude o]^ the I field is the 
greatest at the ground end of the reso- 
nator, indicating that the added L 
should be placed as low as possible on 
the element. By adding a lumped in- 
ductor into a normally distributed L and 
C ehvironment, the desired results 
will be obtained even though a step 
or discontinuity appears in the field 

How can the inductance be in- 
creased in the tuner's oscillator when 
the resonator is a wire or strip of sheet 
fflfetal? The only way is to cut the reso- 
nator at a point closest to the RF 
ground end. If that can't be done near 
the ground end, then moving to a loca- 
tion below the midpoint of the resona- 
tor will have to do. The result of adding 
lumped inductance becomes less ettcc- 
Sve as the L is moved up from the 
ground end. 

To perfonn the cutting operation. 
I've used a hobbyist's tool spinning a 
dental burr. A narrow cut was made in 
the resonator using the burr, and then a 
lumped inductor was soldered between 
the severed ends of the i^esonator. As a 
caution, diagonal cutters should be 
avoided as they can cause severe 
trauma to the ceramic insulators. 

The amount of inductance to add can 
only be determined experientially. My 
suggestion is to use a piece of #22-26 
buss wire (or a resistor's wire lead) 
and form a 1/8-inch wide *'U," and 
then solder the ends of the '*U" across 
the resonator's gap. The length of the 
"U'* might be 1/4 of an inch for start- 
ers. Measurement of the lowest fre- 
quency will be required for each 
change in die L value. If more induc- 
tance is required, then either increase 
the length of the "U" or try two turns 
of buss wire formed by winding the wire 
around an 1/8-inch-diameter mandrel. 

Too much added lumped inductance 
can also ''kill" the oscillator, as did 
excessive capacitive top loading. 
Increasing the oscillator's feedback may 
be helpful. 

Final comments 

The old mechanical variable UHF 
TV tuners can be used as UHF dippers. 
Perhaps two or more modified tuners 
would be required to provide coverage 
for the potential frequency range of 
440-910+ MHz. 

With minor modifications, *'stock" 
mechanical tuners can be used as a 
dipper in the frequency band covering 
approximately 470-900 MHz. Then, 
with specific modifications, some tun- 
ers may be moved either lower or 
higher in frequency than that available 
from the "stock" tuner. 

Although packaging had not been 
discussed regarding the tuner-dipper, 
the user has complete freedom in com- 
pleting that asj^ect of the project. To 
facilitate the use of the device as a dip- 
per and for convenience, the sense 
loop may be located over the oscillator 
wall on die tuner's end opposite the 
tuning shaft. 

Because tuners trom different manu- 
facturers vary in design, be ready to 
experiment and have fun with the 
tuner-dipper project. The results of Lhe 
project offer die ham experimenter a 
very useful tool, and a world of new 

Secret Death Ray 

continued Jrom page 1 7 

scientists, is that I found nothing sinister, 
or even out of the ordinary for that 
matter In the end, die site may be 
more about government research than 
about some kind of mind control device 
or apocalyptic doomsday machine. The 
Web site sponsored by the Navy has 
good solid information on ionosphere 
physics, real-time data valuable to hams, 
and a chance to see how good the cuirent 
weatlicr is in the interior of Alaska. 

You may contact me at [AFDEKl @] if you have questions 
or comments. Please be aware that I do 
not own a tin foil hat. 

More infomiation can be found at 
haarp.htm] on the patent that caused 
the fiiss. At [http://www. sightings, 
there's a fringe article on the system as 
a doomsday box. [http://www,haarp. html] has Uni- 
versity of Alaska information on the 
science performed at the site, 

The Anchorage Daily News (a local 
newspaper) has published a large num- 
ber of articles about HAARP, Use 
[http://w WW, 
ctm] to search their database for infor- 
mation on HAARP, books about the sys- 
tem, and local letters to the editor. 


TV Tutor 

continued from page 23 

from the transceiver. Serial port inter- 
facing appears to be quite forgiving, 
particularly with new^ transceivers that 
have suitable sound levels on their data 
sockets on the back. But I hear regu- 
larly tales of woe by sound card users. 
There are complaints of "No picture," 
which means, the sound level going 
into the card is way too low, or "noisy 
picture with excellent signals/' which 
means the level is so high your sound 
card decodes the noise only. Strong 
patterning may mean that the transmit- 
ter was overdriven with a high level of 

There is also the problem of the 
computer getting into the transceiver 
and vice versa. I understand that Lhe 
FCC no longer effectively enforces its 
regulations regarding computer inter- 
ference. The most strictly enforced 
regulations are found m Europe, where 
not only the output of hash is re- 
stricted, but also the susceptibility to it. 
Computers sold here in New Zealand 
are better than they were, and laptops 
may be clean, in fact. But although the 
European regulations were adopted 
here, they are not enforced. My own 
computers and monitors are not com- 
pletely clean, but I can receive DX 

Older DOS-based programs (and my 
RlSCOS-based one) may need to re- 
ceive a complete picture before you 

Amateur Hadio Today * December 1 999 37 

can start preparing a picture to be 
transmitted. The newer Windows-based 
programs do allow multi-tasking. You 
see who a picture is from as you re- 
ceive, and you pui a reply text on a 
picture you choose for your transmis- 
sion. I am regularly frustrating Italian 
and Spanish DXers when I choose to 
wait for the completipn of a received 
picture before composing my reply. 
SSTV contests are just about impossible 
without nuiltitasking. 

There are several SSTV standards in 
use, but ihe ones commonly seen are 
just two, Scottie and Martin, Their 
resolution is 320 x 256 picture ele- 
ments ("pixels'')- Both take one or two 
minutes Lo transmit. There are modes 
offering higher resolutions, but their 
long transmission speeds are only tol- 
erable when you need to gei publish- 
ablc photos from one end of tlie town to 
another, on VHF, and on Sunday night, 

All SSTV programs have built-in 
graphic support, for inserting text and 
pictures and special effects. Some 
SSTV control screens look like the 
cockpit on a 747, while others need few 
conti'ols. There are now so many SSTV 
programs that I cannot detail them all. 
Even those diat you pay for arc so cheap 
tliat you can afford to try scvcrah 

Please do not circulate paid for pro- 
grams for free. A popular SSTV pro- 
gram is no longer easily available 
through ordinary channels, because its 
full version was put on the Net. 

I hope I have not turned you off with 
all this detail. I suggest you get your- 
self set up by utilizing the first few 
paragraphs of this article, and then use 
the rest as reference once you have an 
SSTV program on the screen before 

later^ or in case you need to contact the 
FCC about the filing. 

That's all there is to it: A few min- 
utes on-line, and you're covered for 
another 10 years of exciting hamming. 
So what kind of turnaround can you 
expect? Well, after I had filed on-line 
on June 4th, the eftbctive date on my 
License came back as June 8th. It was 
just a shtnt time later (less than 2 weeks) 
that I received my license in the maik 
The license contained a wallet-size 
copy and a full- si /.e version. Both were 
printed on one 8-1/2" x IT' sheet ready 
for cutting and mounting. 

I hope this article helps to make an 
already easy process even easier Ixjr 
you. If youM like to read more about 
the new forms available, I think you Ml 
find all these sites helpful: 




I h 1 1 p : / / w w w . f c c . g o V / F o r m s / 

[ h t tp : // w w w . f c c . g o V / s e arc h / 

Why Not Renew On-line? 

continued from page 25 

be displayed where actually required in 
the future. 

You'll receive a summary submis- 
sion page after filing. This will have a 
Submission Identification Number 
date of submission, and your callsign 
on it. Print this out or write down the 
ID number in case of any problems 

38 73 Am^t&ur Radio Today * December 1999 

A Cold Meal and a Hot Radio 

continued from page 30 

change my call. That was before the 
vanity calls were available. 

Well, again I was hanging out with 
Gordon. I was spending more lime 
with him than with my husband. I had 
just thought I had a dislike for code. 
In tlie next few months I formed a 
distinct hatred for it, but was too stub- 
born to give up. On my second try, I 
passed the 20 w^pm code test. I don't 
know who was more surprised, me or 
my husband. 

From the start, one or twx) of the lo- 
cal hams always wanted to know when 
I was going to upgrade. Welk they 
don't ask anymore. Fve been tempted 
to ask the same question, but so far 
have refrained. 

As you can tell, Tm no big fan of the 
code, but Fm really glad I had to get 
my licenses the way I did. I had to 
work really hard, and 1 think we al- 
ways value more those things for 
which we have worked hardest 

As I said at the beginning, I had no 
idea how amateur radio would change 
my life. Not only have I had the oppor- 
tunity to meet people all around the 
world, but the real blessing has been 
the friends I have made here in my 
home town. 1 have met some of the 
most wonderful people — whom I 
would not have met if wc had not both 
had an interest in amateur radio. I 
count them as my best I'riends and I 
can't imagine life without them. T owe 
that to amateur radio. 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

continued from page 34 

because this is harder to do, especially 
with home-brew measLtrement setups. 

Tn the next section, we will explore 
what happens between the voltage 
maxima and minima, and take a look 
at the origin of and use of the Smith 


continued from page 6 

days to cover part of their lodging. They were 
also given a Hamvention entry ticket nnaking them 
eligible for all prize drawings as well as a ticket 
to the grand awards banquet. But in 2000, that 
will not be the case. 

According to information supplied by Forums 
Chairman Jim EbnerNSJE, the Hamvention 2000 
planners have announced that the cash reim- 
bursement will now be made at a rate of one 
hundred dollars an hour for each hour that a fo- 
rum runs. But there is a kind of Catch 22. The 
payment will go only to the forum moderator. No 
payment will be made to the other participants. 

In other words, if there is a session with a 
dozen speakers that runs two hours, the person 
listed as moderator or forum leader gels a two 
hundred doHar payment . He or she then has the 
option to keep it all or share it with the other par- 
ticipants. DARA says that it will not get involved. 

Also gone is the free Hamvention entry ticket 
and free banquet ticket. Session moderators and 
their speakers will get badges that will give them 
entry to the entire Hamvention. If they want to 
be eligible for the prize drawings, they wilt have 
to buy a ticket on their own. Also, if they want to 
attend the banquet, DARA will sell them a ticket 
at fifty percent off face value, but the days of free 
banquet tickets are also now gone. 

Mo reason was given for these changes, but 
it's believed that the rising cost of putting on a 
ham radio convention the size of the Hamvention 
make cutbacks like this inevitable. 

Thanks to NSJEand DARA, through Newslina 
Bill Pasternak WA6ITF, editor. M 

The Digitrl Port 

(4umber 39 en your Feedback card 

Jack Heller KB7N0 

P.O.Box 1792 

Carson City NV 89702-1792 


You readers plus hams on the 
air conlribute quite a lot to this 
column. You would think thai a 
ham who does al] this experi- 
menting with the various soft- 
ware aud hardware combina- 
tions would get more air time 
than anyone else. Not necessar- 
ily so. I feel fortunate to get a 
little quality communication 
with some of you. 

The other day, 1 was working 
some PSK31 and happened 
upon Gene K5FQ. I had listened 
lo a previous QSO in which he 
was offering a report on the 
other station's signal, and I had 
no way of comprehending how 
he could do this. Hence, the 
over-the-air call and the ensuing 

I was telling him the latesi 
software configuration 1 was 
using and he suggested 1 should 
visit his Web site and download 
the version 10 of Logger. Gene 
explained, w ith no bashf ulness, 
that The latest version of Logger 
was absolutely the cat's meow 
and I think he implied I would 
be sorry if 1 didn't get a copy. 

Experience: Laptop 
useful, but — 

I had used Logger previously 
and wrote about it in the Octo- 
ber column. It seemed to work 
quite weU in the laptop, which 
seetns to surprise the program- 
ming community, but, if you are 
as lucky as I am, you too may 
come upon a combination witli 
your laptop that allows you to 
work some of these modes por- 

The horsepower isn't there 
when compared with the desk- 
top, but I can usually run one 
program at a time with a fair 
amount of success. Until re- 
cently, the two machines shared 
similar specs except for a little 

less RAM in the laptop- This led 
me to believe they were fairly 

Then the desktop finally 
balked, and it was time for up- 
grades that amounted to a big- 
ger hard drive and more RAM. 
Also, there was a virus loose in 
the system. While the desktop 
was down suffering delays, 1 
attempted to cause the laptop to 
perform the same as the desk- 
lop and it would slow to a crawl 
for lack of RAM. These were 
''nomial" applications such as a 
word processor, browser, and 

mail program al! running to- 

It is nice to have the desktop 
back running and savin^i much 
time. Also, tiiere is a new graph- 
ics program that will allow bel- 
ter quality for accompanying 
pictures. What I am saying is 
possible encouragement to those 
who would like to use a laptop 
That seems a Httie wimpy. The 
wimpy laptop at this house has 
run almost all the ham commu- 
nication software successfully. 
Yours may do the same. 

Back to the Logger 

Logger is freeware. Most of 
us appreciate freebies. It is writ- 
ten by Bob Purzer K4C Y and is 
a more complete package than I 
was aware of. Bob has drawn 
many favorable comments from 
users. I went to Gene's Web site 
and, speaking as a first-time 

visitor, I can say it is a pleasant 
surprise. He claims 4,000 links 
to ham-related topics and has 
some very interesting ham links 
on the home page in addition to 
PSK3 1 stuff. If you are like me, 
you will find it irresistible to 
follow some of ihem. 

The site is [ www.mysite.coni/ 
k5fq/]. I made a common error 
when I entered the address the 
first time. I found by capitaliz- 
ing the call letiers, it didn't 
work. It went somew^here unre- 
lated and I was a bit dismayed 
about how to rectify the prob- 
lem until 1 tried the lower case 
k5fq. Just wanted you to know. 

There is a link to a screenshot 
of Logger on the Web site. You 
should take a look at that as well 
as the one here in the article. 
They are different because Log- 
ger is, as it implies, a logging 
program. We all need one of 
those. My paper logbooks are in 


1DJ ItciinscdloKBTNO 











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el Jhe Ak ^wcG hm i?eef> preiSv nice to mt Iri 26 year^ I have ^^^-eci '€i 13 jstes^ got to % a M ot as^o^aft (t ^fm *3 Test PWd). 
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Fig. I. Screenshot. Here is the logger program configured to work PSK3L There are portions of 
four windows displayed. At the very top is a small strip of the basic control screen. Below that is the 
PSK3I screen with some controls and indicators above the receive screen. Since I was only ''reading 
the mail, " there is nothing in the transmit screen. Below the blank tx area are programmable but- 
tons, along with some other standard controls. When you switch to other operating modes such as 
RTTYor Pacton there are other sets of programmable buttons. The lower left is the partially hidden 
entry screen for the logging portion of the program. At the right is the highly effective tuning indica- 
tor that includes those elements described in the text and the spectrum analyzer These windows can 
he placed where you choose for operating convenience. 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 39 

disarray and this part ol tlie pro- 
gram is a welcome addition to 
the shack. 

On the Logger site, there are 
options for firsi-time users and 
upgrades. Plus, there are some 
other helpful files you may 
need. Plenty of itiformation to 
get you going. 

If you like documentation, 
you can get all you want. 1 
printed the manual, which turns 
out to be the help file as wolf It 
comes up in RTF fonnat. 1 think 
that impoits into most w^jrd pro- 
cessors. It displayed 184 pages, 
and just about all of them are full 
of inlgrmalion- A lew are merely 
title pages where something will 
likeiv be added, but if I had ed- 


itcd those down to size, there 
would still be a good t6() pages. 
The only thing lacking is an 
index, and if you use the help 
file in the program, you will 
have an automatic index with 
hyperlinks. There are enough 
bold titles, however, so thai you 

can spot subjects you are search- 
ing for. And ... as I thought about 
it, ir this were written by a ma- 
jor software tech writer, it would 
be expanded to over 500 pages 
easily. What is written is con- 
cise. I did a little extra step be- 
fore printing. My copy has page 
numbers now. Hate to drop 
those bu tidies of paper when 
they aren't numbered. 

There are instructions on the 
Web site for installation, just to 
keep us out of trouble. When I 
went to do the itistallation. I re- 
alized I had never run the old 
copy on this computer. I had 
only done the complete insial- 
1 at ion on the laptop. I must need 
more RAM somewhere in this 
cranium. So ... simple enough ... 
I had lo do that installation first, 
then begin the procedure of 
installing the upgrade. 

These installations went tlaw- 
lessly. There are some notes 
with the software to let you 
know of the minor abnomialities 

you wall experience during the 
install, along with the reasons 
for those hiccups. Keeps you 
from panicking. 

The first thing I wanted to see 
was the PSK3I mode with its 
associated windows. The PSK31 
is simple enough. You will defi- 
nitely want to configure the sys- 
tem before you go this far, but 
that is simple enough. It is 
slightly more complicated than 
entering your callsign. If you are 
new to PSK31, Genets Web 
page has links to all the infor- 
mation for radiO"to-computcr 

After conligiiradon, tlicPSK31 
screen will, after clicking the 
button, display, and you will 
then need to arrange the win- 
dows on the screen for best 
viewine and accessibilitv to the 
various buttons displayed. The 
screenshot is only one conllgu- 
ration. You will move these win- 
dow s around several times 
before vou have the "ideaF' 

Current Web Addressee 

1 Source for: ' 

Web address (URL) 

HF seria triodem plans -j- software 


SV2AGW free Win95 programs 

BayCom — German site 

h tt p :// w w w. baycom. de/ 

Pasokon SSTV programs & hardware --sstv/ite.htm 

PSK31 — Free — orig. PSK31 — a so Logger eh<31 .htm 

Site with inks to PSK31 and Logger 10 

PSKGNR — New — Front end for PSK31 

www.a -wi 

Baycom 1.5 and Manua zip in English 


Source for BayPac BP-2M 

h ttp : //www. ti g e rt ro n i cs . CO r n/ 

TMC to radio wiring help 

ChromaPlX & ChromaSound DSP software iconpixe 

TIr fie wave DSP ^ AEA products 

Internationa Visual Communication Association — 
a non-profit organization dedicated to SSTV 

http://www. mi ndspri ng .cornZ-'Sstv/ 

XPWare — TNC software with samp e download 


Auto tuner and other kits 


TAPR — ots of info www.taprorg 

Creative Services Software 


Table L The Infamous chart. '* Almost everything ../' 
40 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

In the case of having used the 
local radio and computer for this 
mode, it was simpk to get the 
sound levels adjusted. With the 
IC-735, 1 have cables running 
from the accessory port on the 
rear of the radio to the Hne-iii 
and line-out on the sound card, 
and that is all tlie hookup I use. 
Then T adjust the sound levels 
with the audio sound panel in 
Window s95 to the levels sug- 
gested in the documentation. 

I have not yet built the neces- 
sary interface for PTT. With a 
little concentration, 1 turn 
around quickly enough to sat- 
isfy most situations. I may just 
do that as a next project. Some- 
times my concentration ebbs. 

The documentation leads you 
to building an interface to use 
the mike connector on the radio. 
That evidently works for every- 
body, and they don't confuse the 
issue by telling you that some 
radios don't need this interface. 
Perhaps there is info on my 
hookup somewhere within the 
hundred or so pages I haven't 
committed to memory as yet. In 
any case, sound level is critical, 
both on transmit and receive. 

You will get the most com- 
ments if you are overdriving the 
sound card. The little horizon- 
tal field just below the round 
tuning indicator in the screenshot 
ts called the ''waterfall. " When 
the incoming signal is tuned 
properly, it should display a 
fairly narrow white waterfall 
(for w^ant of a better descrip- 
tion)- ir it is voider than what you 
will soon recognize as normal, 
the transmitted signal from the 
other station is not adjusted 
properly. This leads to interfer- 
ence with other signals. 

Just today, T was observing 
signals on the air and noticed 
two clean signals with approxi- 
mately the same amplitude 
within 40 Hz of each other, and 
tliey could each be tuned In iuid 
copied very well. Try that in 
other modes. CW i.s the only 
other mode I have seen that 
would compare. 

Now, here is the trick part of 
ihe program I wanted to see. I 
mentioned I had listened to 

Gene giving these unusual 
sounding reports on intermodu- 
lation and supplying numbers as 
well. You loo can experience 
indicators. If you look in the 
screenshoi at the rectangle to the 
right of the round tuning indi- 
cator and waterfall, you will see 
a spectrym analyzer. 

This little screen is marked 
horizontally with 50 Hz incre- 
ments, so i I is 250 Hz wide. 
When you tune a signal to the 
middle of this rectangle, there 
are iwo red vertical lines that 
turn yellow. When yellow, ihe 
signal can be decoded and re- 
ceived text displays on the 
screen. li" the transmitting sta- 
tion is not sending text (and only 
then — much like a RTTY 
diddle), there is a display of 
numbers indicating imcrmodu- 
lation. There is an explanation 
of what this indicates in the 
manual, Xl is enlightening. 

The most useful part of the 
tuning indicator, at least at firsts 
is within this rectangle, as it 

enables simple, quick, and ac- 
curate tuning of the incoming 
signal. After some practice, you 
will find you could tune with- 
out the spectrum analyzer, but 
as long as it is availabie, you 
will always use it. You will get 
used to where the signal is and 
how much to turn your tuning 
knob {slowly) to gel there. 
These are narrow signals at 31 
H2» and you can go by them be- 
fore you know they are there. 

One other thing I learned 

1 was watching a QSO in 
which one of the signals was 
definitely overdriven. The op- 
emtor was attempting the usual 
audio adjusLments with no suc- 
cess. Then came the revelation 
that his compressor was on. 
There are warnings not to have 
the compressor on, but that was 
a good example of the reason 
why. and now, to me, it is rec- 
ogniiable. The waterfall seemed 
to resemble a cowcatcher on an 

old steam engine. Another sig- 
nal might look diflercnt, but this 
one pattern was unique. 

Accessing the log file 

There is more to the program. 
1 have only touched on a little 
bit* An important part of the log- 
ging program may Hy right by 
during the initial setup. That is 
that the program creates a log 
fde for you the first dme you nin 
it. That log file is titled with your 
callsign. On the opening screen, 
if you want the log available to 
make entries, you mustcUck on 
your callsign in the little win- 
dow that presents itself. You will 
find in the configuration process 
that there is a way to cause this 
to happen automatically on 
boot- up. 

Now, I must confess, 1 am 
overwhelmed with the many 
features of Logger 1 have only 
touched on the surface and re- 
alize that the hundred or so 
pages hold many surprises. To 

give you an idea of what is there, 
I will just tell you of an enthusi- 
astic reader's comments. 

I received an E-mail from 
Joey N9LQ the other day. He is 
using the PTC-Ii TNC and is an 
avid digital operator. He told me 
how he downloaded the free 
logger program and started us* 
ing it on all modes — and liked 
it so well that he has now de- 
leted die commercial all-mode 
software he was using and just 
uses Logger. 

I have anotlier pending pn)ject 
I looked through the program to 
tlnd a configuration to address 
my oldPK-232MBX. It is often 
a su'anger to new programs. I 
will have to find the combina- 
tion that works. Once I do, it 
looks like the program should be 
as effective as any other for all 
the modes supported by the 232. 

Joey went on to tell of build- 
ing the Lectrokit PSKT interface 
and how well it made his set- 
up work. Then he told of an 
"Enhanced Mixer" he down 


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Convert Excess Equipment to CASH • We buy good, clean, used equipment • Estate Sales 

73 AmatBur Radfo Today • December 1 999 41 

On the Go 

Number 42 on your feedback csfd 

Mobile, Portable and Emergency Operation 

Steve Nowak KE8YN/4 
1011 Peacock Ave. NE 
Palm Bay FL 32907-1 371 


Hurricane encore 

With this being the December 
issue, I had originally planned 
on writing my Christmas wish 
list and lelling my YF thai since 
il was published, she would 
need to make sure that all the 
items were given serious consid- 
eration. Unfortunately (or fortu- 
nately?), this plan was overcome 
by events. 

Tni writing this in mid-Octo- 
Ber, and although hurricane sea- 
son doesn't officially end for 
another six weeks, most of us 
are more focused on fall activi- 
ties such as shifting from "Back 
to School" to Halloween, Tropi- 
cal stomis aie not in the fore- 
front. Hurricane Irene was one 
of those storms that developed 
in the Caiibbean Sea and moved 
toward llie west coast of Florida. 
While tiie computer models for 
hurricanes that develop in the 
Atlantic are very impressive, 

those for storms in the Gulf or 
the Caribbean are less accurate, 
1 guess with all the islands it Is 
Uke projecting the path of a pin- 
bail. In any case, the lack of 
solid projections reminded me 
of SkvWarn during tornado sea- 
son up In the Midwest: Just 
when you think something is 
going to happen soon, but there 
is no idea as to exactly where or 

The National Weadier Service 
asked us to bring up the 
Sky Warn net about 10:00 p.m. 
on Friday. Naturally, it is diffi- 
cult (if not impossible) to do 
much storm spotting in the dark, 
but since flooding w^as the main 
concern, there was some good 
the ham community could do. 
The net was on the air until 
about 2:00 a.m., when everv- 
body pretty much folded up — 
one of the hazards of having a 
disaster on a Friday night after 
a full week of work. The spirits 

"Enhanced Mixer' he loaded 
from [, 
au/-mlevoi]. I haven't done this 
as yet, but he claims he can 
make custom audio level set- 
tings for each band and call them 
up when he changes bands. 

I will have to investigate this 
and let you know. I do notice a 
difference in audio settings be- 
tween the voltage available when 
operating from battery pciwer as 
opposed to the shack power sup- 
ply. This requires audio level 
compensation. 1 find that the 
quickest way to the control panel 
in Wiiidows95 is witli a right click 
on the sound level icon at die bot- 
tom of the screen. However, there 
seem to be different versions of 
Windcjws and that may not work 
for all 

Another recent addition is a 
CD-ROM disk from QRZ. This 
arrived when only the laptop 
was available. On installation in 
the laptop, access to the disk 
through the Windows overlay 
was agonizingly slow. Then I 
found the DOS interface and the 
speed was reasonable. When in- 
stalled in the desktop, it is 
blindingly fast. Sometimes it 
seems instantaneous when being 
accessed through a communica- 
tions prograjii such as Logger. I 
tried it with several programs. 
(Why did I not have one of these 

If you have questions or com- 
ments about this column, E-mai! 
me at []. For 

were willing, but the flesh kind 
of wore out after a while. 

Much of the heaviest weather 
hit during the early morning 
hours, w ith high winds and tor- 
rential rains. The next morning, 
the net came back up bright and 
early, and I rejoined it around 
9:00 a.m. We were operating 
both SkyWarn and the emer- 
gency services nets concun-ently 
on the same frequency. There 
was not a lot of traffic, but 
enough to keep me busy as net 
control Although 1 have often 
acted as net control, I had a 
couple of surprises which I wish 
10 share. As most jokes go, FU 
give you the bad news first. 

The night befoi^e the storm, 
when the weekly emergency net 
was scheduled, net control did 
not come up on the frequency 
at the appointed time. Since we 
rotate the net control duty, this 
happens occasionally, since 
even hams have unexpected 
commitments due to work, fam- 
ily, etc. Several stations called 
to ask if the net was going to be 
held but no one actually started 
it. I established the net and won- 
dered why there were so few 
hams who w^ere interested in 
taking net control duty. 

The following few days dur- 
ing the Hurricane, I noticed a 
few ex ampl es of poor operaii on 
that did not seem to be in the 
true spirit of amateur radio. At 
that point, several impressions 
struck me. Firsts I know of 
people who have been excellent 
net control operators who no 
longer participate in that capac- 
ity. I suspect that some of them 
got tired of some of the hassles 
that can go with net control duly. 
Others wlio might be interested 
may be a httle intimidated by the 
thought of trying to be net con- 
trol: when thev heai' some of the 
inappropriate comments made 
on a net, this interest may be 
lessened. Here are some things 
to remember when part of a net- 
work in any capacity. 

First, few if any of the partici- 
pants on the net do this full- 
time. Everyone is a volunteer 
using skills nonnally associated 
with a hobby. These are skills 

that in an emergency are pressed 
into heavy-duty service, and it 
takes even a skilled operator 
some time to get into the 

Second, if this is a real emer- 
gency, the adrenaline is going to 
hamper everyone's ability to 
stay cool. Unfortunately, in a 
real emergency people can gel 
injured or killed, and even the 
prospect uf such an event can 
cause people to stammer or fal- 
ter just a liule. It's easy to chat 
on the way to work or rag -chew 
on the low bands, Handhng traf- 
fic thai may affect people's lives 
or homes takes a little more out 
of all of us. 

Third, net control is often try- 
ing to handle multiple tasks at 
any given moment. It is com- 
mon to be monitoring multiple 
frequencies — the frequency on 
which this particular net is op- 
erating, perhaps a frequency 
used for county wide command 
and control, a link to other coun- 
ties or agencies, etc. If located 
at a government agency, there 
will be at least one public ser- 
vice frequency being monitored. 
Add to this the need to pass traf- 
fic received by telephone to the 
appropriate served agencies or 
handle face-to-face discussions 
with public service or emer- 
gency agency people, and things 


can get 

Also, when a ham picks up 
the mike to handle a net, he or 
she does not forget about the 
health and safety of his or her 
own family. What you hear on 
a given frequency is only a 
small part of the activity that is 
occurring, so if net control oc- 
casionally seems distracted, he 
probably is. 

Fourth, an emergency you re- 
port to the netw^ork may not be 
perceived as critically as you 
think it should be. During Hur- 
ricane Irene, a number of good- 
sized pleasure craft broke loose 
and were adrift and headed to- 
ward a bridge. These were duly 
reported through the net to the 
appropriate authorities. Because 
of far more pressing issues, 
these were summarily placed well 
down tlie Hst by the responsible 

42 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Hboue & Bevond 

Nymb^f 43 on youf Fett^t^ card 

VHF and Above Operation 

C. L Houghton WB6IGP 
San Diego Microwave Group 
6345 Badger Lake Ave. 
San Diego CA 92119 
[clhoygh ©pacbe^Lnet] 

Microwave Update 1999 

Just came back to San Diego 
fTom one of the best Microwave 
Update 1999 conferences that 
has ever covered amateur opera- 
tions from 1 GHz to over 47 
GHz and into light frequencies. 
The conference was held at the 
Rarvey Hotel in Piano, Texas, 
on October 21st through Octo- 
ber 24th. This fine conference 
was hosted by the North Texas 
Microwave Society and their 
members who, with the ARRL, 
wene able to bring togeEfaer ama- 
teuts from all over the world with 
one common interest, microwave 

The entire conference was 
directed to the premise of shar- 
ing tecbaical knowledge afid 
current developments through 
the microwave spectrum of our 
amateur frequency bands. For 
those that have never been to a 
microwave update conference^ it 
is a semi-informal event spon- 
sored and dedicated to amateur 
endeavors. Events scheduled 
include many speakers present- 
ing papers and talks covering 
phase noise, ndcrowave rover 
operations, 1296 VLNA com- 
puter design, laser communica- 
tions, amplifiers, feedhorn 

designs, systems for 120 and 
145 GHz, synthesizers, rain 
scatter, EME, new transceivers, 
loop yagis, TWTs, and AMS AT 
updates. And that only describes 
a portion of all the events that 
were cram -packed into four 
days of talks, swap meets, great 
Texas BBQs, technical noise 
figure and spectrum analyzer 
workshops, and an antenna 
workshop for feedhorn mea- 
surements and antenna gain 

There were amateurs there 
from all parts of the globe, in- 
cluding Japan, New Zealand, 
Gennany, England, and many 
more. All in all, it was a very 
successful conference, and the 
free forum and exchange of 
ideas and appUcations helped to 
bolster our continuing support 
of microwave interest to help 
promote usage of these very in- 
teresting frontiers. 

While there were many very 
high end microwave systems 
operating into new frontiers 
above 24 GHz, there were also 
systems that were quite simple 
in operation, making a great 
blend of systems for everyone 
from the beginner to the experi- 
enced microwave amateur- For 
those that could not be there, a 

pohfic service agency. TTiis is thdr 
job^ they do it every day — and 
such decisions definitely belong 
to them. 

Okay, those am the suggestions 
to improve our operating habits. 
The good news? At least 99% of 
liie practices 1 encountered dur- 
ing tte hurricane w^e out^iand- 
ing. Many hams monitored and 
stood by ready to assist or pass 
traffic. Peiiodlcally, when things 
had quieted down^ we would re- 

quest a check- in. The first time I 
did, I was shocked to find over 30 
stations available and on fre- 
quency. Them was very little un- 
necessary communication; these 
folks just stood by until needed 
and then helped where they coukl 
Tve always been just a little 
biased, and felt hams wens spe- 
cial people with special skills. 
After last weekend, Vm sure 
there is no bias — it*s just fact 
Thanks to one and all. 

book of the entire proceedings 
was published by the ARRL that 
covers aU the papers presented 
at the Microwave Update 1999 
Conference. It's available from 
the ARRL as their #7725 (ISBN: 
0-87259-772-5). I understand 
the cost is about $ 15. This book 
covers quite a bit of information 
and is about the size of ^n ARRL 
Handbook^ with 620 pages of 
papers subtnitted by microwave 
amateurs covering a wide range 
of interests. 

Let me take you on a short 
tour. We arrived at the Harvey 
Hotel on Thursday, the 21st, at 
about 4 pjn. in the afternoon. 
Due to our travel arrangements 
and time constraints, we had to 
miss the early program, which 
was a tour of the surplus deal- 
ers in the Dallas, Texas, general 
area that was conducted with the 
able help of Kent Britain 

We took a short tour of the 
hole 1 and met several old friends 
we had only communicated with 

before via E-mail or other meth-- 
ods before this great eyeball 
QSO* Setding in and a great 
supper got us ready for the con- 
ference proper and the opening 
session Friday morning, con- 
ducted by Al Ward W5LUA. 
Speakers were presenting topics 
all day long on a very large va- 
riety of topics. Additionally, in 
the afternoon, after the noon 
lunch break, a secondary event 
was held in the hall outside the 
meeting room. All amateurs 
were invited to drop off RF 
preamps, synthesizers, and other 
microwave networks for evalu- 
ation in the Noise Figure/Spec- 
trum Analyzer/Network Analy- 
zer/Phase Noise Test Equipment 

I dropped otT three items for 
evaluation, as did many others. 
The items I submitted for evalu- 
ation were a 1 GHz bandsa wed 
Qualcomm 3-slage RF preamp, 
and 2 synthesizers, one for 2592 
MHz, and one for 1 152 MHz. 
The synthesizers were to be 



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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 43 


evaluated for phase noise and 
the prcanip For gain and nois-c 
figure. I knew ahead of time that 
the synthesizers were reason- 
ablv Etood. I>ein2 some 50 dB 
down in pha:>e noise products. 
but the pncamp was a laric. 

The preanip submitied was a 
surplus Oualcomm 3-si3ge 
commercial unit normally set to 
operate at 1 2 GHz, I bandsawed 
the metal housing with ihe 
preamp attached and had to con- 
ven ii with two SMA connec- 
tors and two 1 pF chip caps 
between the circuit board traces 
and ihe coax connectors. DC 
pov\^er and -5 volt bias test leads 
were attached, and the unit was 
sealed iu aluminum tape for 
shielding: this was all that was 
1 wanted an evaluation of the pre 
Somewhat dangerous should the 
amp not function: however it 

measured at 10368 MH? 26.4 
dB gain, and a noise figure of 
2, 13 dB. Not bad for an untested 
commercial 1 2 GHz Quaicomm 
preamp obtained in surplus and 
operated on an amateur fre- 
quency. The phase noise of the 
synthesizers measured to jusi 
over 70 dB dow-n, some 20 dB 
better than my simple test equip- 
ment could deiemiinc. 

l don't have the Figures on 
other devices submitted at this 
time, but there were 30 to 40 
devices submitted for evalua- 
tion^ making this event and ser- 
vice graciously conducted by 
the Norlh Texas Microwave So- 
cio ly quite popular. Not only did 
they put on a great day of speak- 
ers on microwave, but they also 
conducted a very helpful work- 
shop using some of the most 
sophisticated test evaluation 
equipment for microwave ever 
assembled at any one point for 
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44 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

After this great schedule of 
events, an after-supper flea mar- 
ket and general bull session 
were conducted in the main con- 
ference room. I have to admit I 
have ne\'er seen so much micro- 
wave material assembled in any 
one place at any one time. The 
material offered for sale was so 
\'aried and co\ ered many ama- 
teur bands up to about 40 to 50 
GHz, Something for everyone. 

1 have assembled material over 
many year!* of scrounging, but 
what 1 obser\ ed in iliis one room 
made my stuff look pale in cam- 
pan son to the material offered 
for sale, 

Saturday was a similar day 
that started off with the San Di- 
ego Microwave Group's presen- 
tations on synthesizers, a simple 

2 GHz *'Synplexer" presented 
by Ed Munn W60YJ, ajid a 10 
GHz uransverter presented by 
Kerry Banke N61ZW. Later, the 
same workshop forum wa.s held 
again for amplifiers, preamps, 
and such as was held on Friday, 
The evening program w^as a 
BBQ banquet for alL The main 
speaker was Joel Harrison 
W5ZN, Vice President of the 
ARRL, w^ho put on a very hu- 
morous presentation spoofing 
protection and saving of a pro- 
tected species, Ihe "ARMA- 
DILLO." which suffered a 
sudden ro ad-re luled tragedy. 
Joel brought the house to its 

After supper, a Texas two- 
meat BBQ of beef and chicken, 
there v\'as an auction ful lowed 
by a prize drawing for those in 
attendance at the banquet. This 
was a most unusual after-ban- 
quet drawing in that there were 
items for all. Not only were 
there prizes drawn at random 
pulled from a hat, there were 
enough prizes to offer a chance 
for every^ one in the banquet 
room to receive his choice of 
items on a table of prizes. A great 
idea, something for everyone. Not 
one person went away emply- 
handed — what a conference! 

As the conference wound 
down, there were still events 
scheduled for those that could 
stay for the Sunday morning 

antenna measurement 
feed test range- Needless to say, 
this required a large area in 
which to conduct antenna mea- 
surements tests, ll w as held in a 
back parking lot of Ibe Harvey 
Hotel. Systems tested covered all 
aspects of operation^ from I GHz 
to a system that functioned at 
47 GHz. 

Our San Diego Microwave 
Group tested a simple system 
called the *'Synplexer/* a play on 
words of Polapfexer and Gunn- 
plexer combined with a Synilie- 
sizer for local oscillator injec- 
tion. In iis simplest Ibrm, it 
requires a coffee can antenna 
w4th 1/4 wave receive aruj irans- 
niit probes offset by 90 degrees. 
Coupled to this sysicin was a 
modified synthesiser operation 
at 2302 MHz and receiving at a 
146 MHz IF frequency. That 
means that the other system in 
use had to operate at 2448 MHz 
transmit and receive at its EF 
' i 46 MHz ' for 2303 MHz, The 
10 MHz oscillator providing 
clock to the synthesizer w^as 
modified to accept a small au- 
dio amp driving a varactor in- 
side the 10 MHz tcxo oscillator 
for FM modulation on each end. 
The receive system al each end 
was a modified TVRO I .NA for 
RF prearnp use driving a single 
diode detector and connection at 
each end to a 2 meter HT for 
receive at 146 MHz. the IF fre- 
quency for full duplex voice 

This system was put together 
from Ilea market LNAs and 
other surplus materials to show 
that a simple system thai has 
good communications range can 
be constructed for very little 
cost. In tests, the coffee can an- 
lennas could feed dishes but 
were used as the main antenna 
by themselves and showed 
about 6 dB gain. For communi- 
cations in the 1/2 mile range, the 
antennas did not need to be 
pointed at anything in pariicu- 
lar for good comjiuniications- 
Ed Munn W60YJ and Kerry 
N61ZW demonsirated the sys- 
tem during the parking lot an- 
tenna measurements workshop- 
1 hat's w^here Bd was able to make 


Number 45 Ofi your Fe^di^ck CArd 

Amateur Radio Via Satellites 

Andy MacAJfrster W5ACM 
14714 Knights Way Drive 
Houston TX 77083-5640 

Keeping up with changes in 
the world of amateur-radio sat- 
ellites is a challenge. Long gone 
are the days of only one func- 
tional hamsat in the sky. Today 
there are over a dozen, and they 
vary dramatically in teir opera- 
tion, frcqueticy usage, and orbil. 
The AMSAT General Meeting 
and Space Symposium has been 
a great source of infomiation 
about what's h;ippening now, 
and planned for the future. 

The AMSAT Symposium 

Duane Nagle K06BT and his 
crew in San Diego hosted 
AMSATs 17ih Annual Meeting 
and Space Symposium. It was 

the long-awaited announceraettt 
that Dr. Karl Meinzer has signed 
a contract with Arianespacc 
(Tuesday, October 5, 1999). 
P3D will be on the first suitable 
Ariane 5 launch as a secondary 
payload. Specific details were 
not made available in the press 
release of October 7th, but this 
is the major milestone that sat- 
ellite enthusiasts have been 
waiting for While it is possible 
that P3D may go to orbit as early 
as April, 2000, the wait for a ride 
could be longer. In the mean- 
time, P3D will be shipped to 
Kourou, French Guyana, by the 
end of October. The satellite will 
then be checked out and stored 
as a "standby passenger, read 

Photo A. The AMSAT 1 7th Annual Meeting and Space Sympositim 
was held in early October at the Hanaiei Hotel in San Diego, 


Kerry Banke N6IZW gave 
details on methods for modify- 
ing Qualcomm OmniTRACS 
surplus microwave equipment 
for yse with amateur satellites. 
Kerry has been working with the 
gear mostly for terrestrial use, 
but the advantage of inexpensive 
high-quality surplus modifiable 

microwave equipment provides 
highly cost-effective units for 
possible hamsal work. 

Kerry's talk was a good mix 
of understandable hardware 
modifications using some very 
advanced electronic microwave 
building blocks tike synthesizers, 
reference oscillator modules. 

mixers, and other items. The 
symposium proceedings give 
complete procedures for using 
the Qualconim units on ham 
bands from 1 .2 GHz up ihrough 
24 GHz, These are not good 
projects for novice-level kit 
builders, but il*s getting cheaper 
and easier to get on the more 
esoteric microwave hani bands. 

Dr. Bob Twiggs KE6QMD of 
Stanford came to tell us about 
OPAL, the Orbiting Picosat Au- 
tonomous Launcher. The pro- 
gram began in 1995 to build and 
launch a satellite that would act 
as the **nfiother ship ' for a group 
of very small satellites called 
picosats ( I 10 2 kg vv^cighi) to be 
ejected from 'launcher tubes" 
after OPAL is in orbit. The 
rocket is a modified Minuteman 

Artemis is a group of female 
engineering students at Santa 
Clara University. They have 
built two picosats thai arc used 
to study VLF signal characicr- 
istics from orbit. They hope to 
dift'ercntiaic betw^een horizontal 
and vertical VLF signals gener- 
ated by iightning storms from 
orbit. A third picosat was also 
built hy the group, 

STENSat was a result of Bob 
Twiggs' challenge to the at- 
tendees at the 1998 AMSAT 
Symposium in Vicksburg. Mis- 
sissippi, to propose and build a 
picosat. Bob showed the sym- 
posium attendees a complete 
engineering model buili by the 
STENSat crew. This Mode 'T^ 
(two meters up and 70 cm 
down) FM transpondcr-in-the- 
sky is small enough to fit in your 
back pocket. Bob demonstrated 
the antenna deployment system 
that unfurls the dipoles for the 
VHP receiver and the UHF 

A third group of picosat build- 
ers from the Aerospace Corp. 
have built tw^o tethered satellites 
as a wireless radio communica- 
tions demonstration. 

Bdale Garbee N3EUA made 
a presentation about w^hy 
AMSAT software should be 
fnee ware. This is a controversial 
issue, but Bdale used some his- 
torical background about how 

freeware via the Internet has ! 
actually helped AMSAT get 
more enthusiasts into the hobby. 
Bdale has been involved with 
many AMSAT projects and ac- 
knowledges the fact that much 
of AMSAT*s income has been 
derived from satelhte tracking 
software sales. Bdale pointed 
out that "open source" (almost 
free) software provides a means 
for the softwaie to evolve by 
inviting users to become partici- 
pants in the software develop- 
ment process and conversion for 
use in other operating systems. 
Bdale also pointed out that soft- 
ware that can freely evolve to 
provide features that have not 
yet been identified is software 
that will endure, 

Assi Friedman KK7KX pre- 
sented updates on the status of 
ASUSatl and the upcoming 
launch with JAWSal. OPAL, 
and FalconSai. In addition to iis 
digital cnmmunicaijons system, 
ASUSatl has a single-channel 
FM voice transponder. The Ari- 
zona State University efforts go 
beyond this, their first amateur 
satellite. More satellites are on 
die way for launch in 2(X)1 and 
2002. and testing efforts con- 
tinue with small "CANSats'' 
that are sent up on non-orbiting 
iunateur rockets to test new sys- 
tems designed and built by stu- 
dents. Assi was joined by Brian 
Underhill and others to provide 
details about the multitude of 
projects currently in production 
or design. Conference attendees 
were delighted with a video clip 
of a recent CANSat launch from 
Blackrock, Nevada. 

Aodnew Tavlor KC0BPD is 
a senior at Colorado State Uni- 
versity working on an electrical 
engineering degree. His presen- 
tation focused on the use of digi- 
tal point-to-point protocol (PPP) 
communications for the Citizen 
Explorer Satellite pmject, An- 
drew pointed out that PPP is 
simple and inexpensive to imple- 
ment. The Citizen Explorer 
satellite will be accessed via a 
ground stations in Colorado, New 
Mexico, and Alaska. Compared 
to the AX.25 data format com- 
n[K>nIy used by hams for packet 

Photo B. The weather wns perfect, as were the facilities. 

Photo C Kenwood had two representative b and a nice display of 
new radios at the Space SytnposiunL 

radio, the PPP protocnl uses 
fewer packets and fewer over- 
head bits to gel the data through. 
The satellite is an educational 
project designed to provide satel- 
lite measurements of local ozone 

and ultraviolet radiation for a 
worldwide student audience. 

Cliff Buitschardl K7RR pre- 
sented some simple yet effecdve 
methods of building 70'Cm 
patch antennas on a budget. 

Pbalo D. Bmce Paige KK5DO set up in the sympoMum meeting 
room to feed live audio via geosat and record the talks for 
Internet distribution from lhTtp://w\\^\}. 

46 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Photo E. Frank Bauer KA3HD0 and Will Marcfmni KC6ROL 
provided updates on umaieur radio systems designed for the 
international Space Station (ISS)* 

Cliff began with background 
informaiion on how patch aa- 

Photo E Matjaz Vtdniar S53MV 
came ptmt Slovenia w present 
his interesting jitidings on "No- 
Time Transceivers for the Micro- 
wave Bands. " 

lennas work and how to make 
them with circular polarizadon. 
The materials Cliff used were 
surplus road signs that are t>pi- 
cally made from ,060" alumi- 
num-alloy sheets. Circular polar- 
ization is achieved bv orientine 
the feed poiat ai a specific spot 
on the patch. While one spot cre- 
ates right-hand circular polar* 
ization (RHCP), a point on the 
opposite side of the patch will 
create a left-hand circular polar- 
ization (LHCP) orientation. To 
have a swiichable-mode an* 
tenna, the two points for RHCP 
and LHCP are fed by coax to a 
simple RF relay. Cliff's paper in 
the symposium proceedings 
gives complete details on the 
methods and materials to use to 
make successful patch tmtennas. 

Photo G. Bob Bruninga WB4APR (APRS inventor) demonstrated 
portable 9600-haud digisat reception in the parking lot outside 
the symposium ttweting room. 

Randv Kohlwey N7Sn pro- 
vided an update on the status of 
JAW Sat, which at the time of the 
conference was at Vandenberg 
waiting for launch. Randy *s talk 
began with a brief history of the 
Center for AemSpace Technol- 
ogy (CAST) and its mission. 
JAWSat's goals include provid- 
ing a physical platform forotlier 
satellites, e.g., OPAL, FalconSat 
and ASUSat, and to carr\' six 
video cameras with transmitter 
system, some scientific experi- 
ments, and an amateur- radio 
store-and-forward communica- 
tions payload. The cameras are 
set to monitor the separation of 
the sub-satellites after orbital 

Anthony Monteiro AA2TX 
has developed a new software 
offering called Instant Tune for 
the Yaesu FT-847, Tony recog- 
nized an opportunity^ to create an 
automatic tuning system that 
would take care of Doppler ad- 
justments during a satellite pass. 
Instant Tune works in conjunction 

with Instant Track satellite 
tracking software. Instant Tune 

will calculate the necessary cor- 
rections to both the transmit and 
receive frequencies during a sat- 
ellite pass. The software will 
then apply these corrections di- 
rectly to the radio through its 
computer connection port. 

Originally the software was 
developed for the Kenwood 
CAT system. From diere it was 
modified to support a muliiiude 
of radios and the various hard- 
ware interface restrictions. With 
the introduction of the FT- 847 
from Yaesu, Anthony targeted 
this new radio with his recent 
efforts. With Instant Tune run- 
ning, the user simply sets his 
radio for the appropriate receive 
frequency and operates, Dop- 
pler shift is automatically ad- 
dressed and satellite conver- 
sations become as easv as HF 
(shortwave) operation. Anthony 
did a live demonstration of his 

Continued on page 50 


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con t inued from pttge 2 1 

Guide to Wisdom, which re- 
views most of the above 

Uniil you honestly try the 
procedure Tve outline^], you 
won't know if or how much it 
could change your life. The 
body, given die right nutri- 
ents, and a positive attitude, 
is capable of incredible heal- 
ine powers. Or would you 
rather keep suffering with a 
backache, anhritis, or what- 
ever? My Secrei Guide to 
Health explains how you can 
best care for votir bodv, thus 
giving it an opportunity to re- 
pair itself. Now all you need 
to add is a positive attitude 
(known also as prayer). 
Please try this simple ex pen- 
men t for 60 days and let me 
know^ w^hat happens. If the re- 
sults are as spectacular as I 
expect, ril need your help to 
get on the Tonight show. 

Prayer really does work 
— just not the way most 

people think, fll tell you 
what — maybe you'll take a 
half minute out of your day 
to help me? I would appreci- 
ate your pra>'er for me to help 
make my body he^ilihier and 
younger, so 1 11 have more 
time to get the word to any- 
one who will listen. If cof- 
fee ice cream starts looking 
less atu-activc to mc Til know 
your prayers haxe helped. 

Everything fits together so 
ncaily that Fm very excited 
about thi.s — but l*m depend- 
ing on you to prove Fm right. 


1 really appreciated get- 
tine a letter the other dav 
from a 75 -year-old reader 
who ciedited the bioelectrifier 
with completely curing her 
cancer. Her doctor couldn't 
believe the x-rays! But this 
w^as followed up by a call 
fj'om another reader who owns 
four hospitals and who has 

Continued on page 59 

Code Warrior Jr 

Now that the Cold War is 
over, Vibroplex has brought 
out the Code Warrior Jr., the 

production version of the 
Norcal K8FF key. As they say, 

for the "list*' time in their his- 
tory, Vplex is offering QRP 
keys, and this one is destined 
to become a collectible. 

Each Junior is uniquely se- 
rial numbered and dated, widi 
black powder-coated bases, 
clear paddles, magnetic action, 
and NO springs. For price and 
other info, contact The 
Vibroplex Co,, Inc.; 11 Mid- 
[own Park, E.; Mobile AL 
36606-414L Call (334) 478- 
8873 or fax (334) 476-0465. 

Sun Visor Mike 

These days ham radio is a hobby on the go. The advent of 
small, affordable mobile radios has allowed every amateur radio 
operator to take his hobby **on the road" with him. Still, one i 
thing always gets in the way: the microphone, 

ll seems like ihe microphone is always either in the way or 
just out of reach. When you are driving down the road, it's not 
only ariiKjying to have to dig around on the floor, mid-QSO* for 
the mike you just dropped, but it's also dangerous. 

The PRYME MMC-UK) "Sun Visor' microphone brings an 
end 10 all that/The \L\1C-100 is a unidirectional clear-sounding 
elcctret microphone mounted on a tlexible gooseneck. It secures 
to the sun visor of your car, so it's always in place for all your 
ham radio mobiling. The Push-To-Talk switch Tor the micro- 
phone is located on an in-line box that can be mounted to the 
gear shift or arm rest making mobile operation mone convenient 
and safe than ever 

The MMC-100 is sold without a microphone cable. However, 
six different optional microphone cables are availabJe to sup- 
port all of today's popular HF and VHFAJHF base station and 
mobile radios. Just purchase whichever cable you need for your 
radio or radios. The cables are siricUy plug and play: no soldering is 

For more infonnation about the PRYME MMC- 100. cunlact 
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92821: teL (714) 257^0300: Fax (714) 257-0600; E-mail 
[premier @adi-radioxom]; site [www*.adi-radio.coml. 

Free Software 

HAMCALC version 40 has now been released by George 
Murphy VE3ERP. With many new upgrades, it includes over 
200 painless math and design programs for radio amateurs and 
professionals alike, HAMCALC has been used woridwide as a 
reference and k^aming tool since its introduction in 1993, All 
programs have the option of working in either metric or impe- 
rial units of measure, and you'll find much information not 
readily available in current handbooks and literature. 

HAMCALC is written in GWBASIC and requires a 
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4S 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 

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73 Amateur Radio Today • DeGemberl999 49 

FhoiQ H, Danny VAJJDH used a htmd-heid Arro\%' antenna to 
make voice contaas thrntnifj SUNSAT-OSCAR-iS during a break 
in the talks. 


continued from page 47 

system, ti worked, e%'en in ftonl 
of a laige audience. The softwan; 

Pholo L AMSAT President Keiih Baker KBISF makes a free 
phone call itsin^q one of the Qualcomm sate! tire phones using the 
Globaistar saiellite consrellaHon. 

Photo /. The Gfohuisiar conirol/commumcarions dishes at 
Qualcomm in San Diego, Califomia, are housed in inflatable 
domes like this one. 
50 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

(and stiurce code) are free and 
available from ihe AMSAT 
TnLcmetsiie [hup://www.amsat. 


Dr, Paul Shuch N6TX ended 
ihe official day*s talks with his 
^\'\natumy of a SET! Hoax." 
Paul described some of the 
many inconsistencies that sur- 
faced after various details sur- 
rounding a purported SETI 
(Search for Extraterrestrial Life) 
signal reception in late 1998, 
While PauPs talk covered a se* 
rious topic, his capability as a 
popular speaker brought some 
fun and humor to the presenta- 
tion. Many individuals and 
groups around the world gave 
credence to the hoax until the 
details became public knowl- 
edge. Paul finished with a new 
folk song he wrote for the 
AMSAT gathering: "A Memorial 
to MIRr 

Friday activities continued 
into the evening with two par- 
allel sessions. One was a be- 
ginner *s forum hosted by Gould 
Sniitli WA4SXM, w ith explana- 
tions of issues That confront new 
ham sal opera lors. Gould, with 
help from Other long-time sat- 
ellite enUiusiasts, discussed oitiit 
tmcking soflAvare, ground- station 
equipment needs, and other 
basic topics. 

Ill Ihe mom next door, Ray 
Soifer W2RS, AMSAT vice 
president for International Af- 
fairs, acted as master of ceremo- 
nies for an lARU flntemational 
Amateur Radio Union) satellite 
forum. Hans van de Groenen- 
daal ZS5 AKV, the lARU Ama- 
teur Satellite Advisor, gave an 
update on lARU activities over 
the pa^i } ear* with emphasis on 
their impact on the international 
satellite allocations. Graham 
Ratliff VK5AGR, the lARU 
AMSAT Frequency Coordina- 
tor discussed frequency coordi- 
nation issues for current and 
future hamsais. The group unan- 
imouslv reelected Graham to 
condnue in his current posidon. 
Frank Bauer KA3HDO. 
AMSAT vice president for Hu- 
man Spaceflight Operations, 
discussed ARISS i Amateur Ra* 
dio on the Intemadonal Space 

Station) progress regarding 
callsigns for ARISS operation 
and other international con- 
cerns. Since the International 
Space Station (ISS) is indeed 
"international r ii has been pro- 
posed that ham callsigns on ISS 
be licensed via the International 
Telecommunications Union 
(ITU), rather than individual 

The symposium 

The Saturday presentations 
began in earnest promptly at H 
am. Duane Naglc K06BT and 
his crew had everv thing ready 
to go. Bruce KK5D0 was con- 
nected to the W0KIE network 
for the audio feed uplink to the 
Wisdom channel on C-band 
commercial satellite, Bruce had 
'Real Audio" recordings on his 
PC, but the Internet connection 
from the hotel was rather slow, 
so they were uploaded later to 
You can check out most of the 
symposium talks al this URL 
(Universal Resource Locator) 
on the Internet. 

Jerr>^ Smyth KSSATmade the 
first Saturday morning talk, 
Jerry described a satellite gate- 
way station that lie and other 
satellite enthusiasts have put on 
line in Detroit, Michigan. The 
system incorporates a computer- 
controlled IC-820 for the satel- 
lite side and an old crys- 
tal-controlled 220 MHz mobile 
rig to provide a Urtk to a local 
two-meter repeaten His paper in 
the symposium proceedings 
gives basic information on the 
how and why of the project. 

Dr. Bob Twiggs KE6QMD 
was on the schedule for a sec- 
ond talk on small satellites from 
the Department of Aeronautics 
and Astronautics at Stanford 
University and other educa- 
tional institutions. Bob's Satur- 
day presentation focused on the 
EMERALD Nanosaiellite pro- 
gram widi some historical per- 
spectives. EMERALD consists 
of two separate satellites that are 
to fly in formation. Since these 
hamsat/edusats are scheduled 
for a space shuttle launch under 

Photo K Jim Benson, foamier ofSpaceDev, explained the design 
ami functions of a scientific interplanetary probe designed by his 
San Diego-based company. 

the SHELS {Sliuttle Hilch hiker 
Experimental Launch Sy^iiciii) 
program, the EMERALD saie!- 
lites will be in a relatively low 
orbit The disadvantage is iini' 
ited access time from the 
ground, bill the advantage is thai 
remote-comrolled drag panels 
can be incorpomicd lo adjust the 
baJlistic characteristics ot the 
satellite to achieve the desired 
lormation flying. There is sig- 
nificant air at a few hundred 
miles up, Thaf s why low-(irbii 
satellites eventuall) reenter the 

The ham- radio communica- 
tions experiments on the EM- 
ERALD saiellites include the 
use of 70'Cra frequencies for 
digital inter- satellite and ground 

communications. While Uic ham 
connection is limited, il offers 
amateur radio operators an op- 
portunity to monitor the links, 
dowTilmd die data, and participate 
in the program. 

Bill Burden WB 1 ERE gave a 
short description of the poien- 
tiat uses of amateur satellites in 
emergency communications. 
Unlike HE satellite communi- 
cation is much more predictable 
for long distance work. The dis- 
advantage is that an amateur 
satellite is not always available, 
but can at least be used for com- 
munications at specific times 
during any given day, 

Maija? Vidmar S3 3MV joined 
the group in San Diego to present 
his paper on **Nc>Tune Transc^iv- 



Photo JL Taking a break during the AkISAT board of directors 

meering, from L to R: Chairman of the Board BUI Tynan W3XO, 
First Alternate Mike Gikrest KF4FDJ, AMSAT President Keith 
Baker KBISF, and AMSAT Treasurer Art Feller W4ART Why is 
that sign over Keith s head? 

ers for the Microwave Bands/' 
His tremendous technical exper- 
tise and excellent command of 
English, coupled with a keen 
sense of humon delighted the 
audience. Malja/ and his group 
in Slovenia have produced hun- 
dreds of no'tune kits for hams 
in Europe covering the micro- 
wave bands from L2 to 1 GHz, 
His talk focused on the simple 
construction methods, inexpen* 
sive components, and innova- 
tive designs for his SSB and data 

Bob Bruninga WB4APR not 
only provided satellite demon- 
strations in the parking lot out- 
side the Hanalei Hotel, but also 
gave a very informative talk 
about "AMSAT Builders' Chan- 
nels for HT and Mobile Satel- 
lite Communications/' Bob has 
proposed for some time that the 
rather under-utilized 1200-baud 
Pacsats like AMSAT-OSCAR- 
16, LUSAT-OSCAR-19 and 
rrAMSAT-OSCAR-26 allow UI 
(unconnected) packet digipeat 
activity for APRS (Automatic 
Position Reporting System) op- 
eration. In addition to simply 
sending position information for 
ground stations thai have done 
very simple modifications to 
their packet TNCs (Terminal 
Node Controlter) for Pacsat 
uplink i Jig, short messages of 
any nature are supported by the 
APRS proiocoL Bob demon- 
strated the innovative APRS 
functions in the Kenwood TH- 
D7 HT and also showed the new 
dual-band mobile radio with 
APRS llial Kenwood will have 
available bv the end of the vear. 

Although not on the pub- 
lished schedule, Hans van de 
Groenendaal provided an excel- 
lent synopsis of the capabilities 
of SUNSAr-OSC.VJl-35 and its 
early days in orbit. S-O-35 has 
been a great new hamsai re- 
source since launch earlier this 
yean The university experi- 
ments are typically run during 
the week, and ham transponder 
activity is becoming a common 
weekend activity. The most 
popular ham use has been tlie 
FM single-channel transponder. 
It can be programmed for either 

Mode '*B'' (70-cm up and two 
meters down) or Mode "J" (two 
meters up and 70-cm down). 
Hans also announced a new 
award from AMSAT South Af- 
rica called the Sunsat Award, 

Frank Bauer KA3HDO, 
AMSAT vice president of Hu- 
man Spaceflighi Operations, 
and Will Marchant KC6R0L, 
STS-93 SAREX Operations 
Manager, teamed up to discuss 
amateur radio on the Inicma- 
tional Space Station with refer- 
ences to the SAREX (Shuttle 
Amateur Radio Experiment) 
program and its historical pre- 
cedents. There are many ham 
activities slated for ISS. includ- 
ing HF, VHF, and UHF fre- 
quency coverage. Modes will 
include voice, paclcet, SSTV 
(Slow Scan Television) and 
FSTV <Fasi Scan Television^ 

While Frank covered the 
overall program, Will men- 
tioned some specific opemtions, 
especially the Express Pallet 
program. This is a unit that re- 
sembles a satellite, except that 
it is attached to the side of the 
station and contains a number of 
experiments and communica- 
tions systems that can be con- 
trolled from the station or from 

On STS-IOI, the space sta- 
tion 2A'2 mission scheduled for 
January or February, 2000, 
some VHF and UHF ham gear 
u ill be taken to orbit for voice 
and packet. The external anten- 
nas will be attached to the ser- 
vice module of ihc station on a 
subsequent flight, later in 2000. 
Until then, there are two other 
antennas that can be used for 
ham operadons. 

Lou McFadin W5DTD joined 
Frank and Wilt at the podium to 
show and describe the dual- 
band (two meters and 70 cm) 
antenna to be used on the sta- 
tion. It is basically a quarter- 
wave flexible steel whip cut for 
two meters. It was then covered 
with Kapton tape and some tun- 
ing stubs mounied on the bot- 
tom to provide a good match on 
70 cm. The material used for this 
antenna was from a surplus steel 
measuring tape left over from 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 51 

the AMSAT Microsat program 
10 years ago. The Microsai an- 
tennas, and even the IOmeter 
dipole on AMSAT-OSCAR-6 
(nearly 30 years ago), all in- 
corporated steel tape measure 

Lou McFadin WSDED kicked 
off the discussion about Phase 
3D- The spacecraft is complete 
and ready for shipment to South 
America to await launch on an 
Ariane 5. Lou poinied out thai 
the satellite has componenis 
built bv hams all over the world 
Chuck Green N0AD1 showed 
slides taken before, during; and 
after the thermal/vacuum and 
vibration tests in Maryland. 

The annual meeting and 

Every year at the AMSAT 

Space Symposium, the final of- 
tlcial activity is the annual meet- 
ina. With a launch contract in 
hand, the focus of the organiza- 
tion has changed gears. AM- 
SAT*s focus is to get the satel- 
lite shipped out and sucecssfuny 
into orbiL AMSAT has done 
well financially, but there arc 
hiill many unforeseen expenses 
that will face the organization in 
the year 20()0. AMSAT presi- 
dent Keith Baker KBISF and 
board chairman Bill Tynan 
W3X0 provided some insight 
on what the upcoming year will 
mean to AMSAT. Reserve 
funds will be tapped, but with 
a definite goal in sight, the 
launch of Phase 3D, additional 
support from the amateur- ra- 
dio community may be forth- 
coming. The meeting ended on 
an upbeat note and the evening 

Jim Benson, the chairman of 
SpaceEtev of San Diego, was the 
keynote speaker ai the AMSAT 
banquet, Mr Benson provided 
some ihoughhprovoking ideas 
about the commercialization of 

His company is working to 
provide transportation for scien- 
tific instrumentation to Earth 
orbit, the moon, Mars, and even 
neaity asteroid.^;. His premise is 
that the cost of small missions 
can be held to levels much lower 

tha[i those that directlv involve 
government agencies* 

After dinner, there were two 
more fun events, The AMSAT 
awards presentations are a 
means of recognizing the many 
volunteers who have distin- 
guished themselves during the 
previous year with their efforts 
on behalf of AMSAT Follow- 
ing the plaque presentations, 
prize drawings take oven Last 
year there were so many prizes 
thai almost everyone won some- 
thing, whether it was a rig or 
coffee mug. This year, the San 
Diego group gave out dozens of 
daily prizes diroughout the day 
on Friday and Saturday. The two 
dozen prizes that were left lor 
the banquet were spectacular 
New radios from Kenwood and 
Alinco topped the hst of grand- 
prize offerings. Kenwood was 
also responsible for hats and 
special cloth bag/portfolios for 
all conference attendees. 

Travel and tours 

Three time- staggered tour 
groups took off for Qualcomm 
and SpaccDev on Sunday morn- 
ing. Symposium attendees were 
already intimately familiar with 
some of Qualcomm's most re- 
cent products* portable and 
hand-held phones thai worked 
with the Qualcomm GlobalStar 
satellite network, Oualcomm set 
up three GlobalStar phones 
outside the symposium meet- 
ing room for free use, includ- 
ing long-distance call. Boxes 
of hand'hcid satellite phones 
were also available for use 
outside. It was great fun, and 
the phones and connections 
were excellent. At the Qual- 
comm facilities, we got to see 
the labs where the phones were 
buill, r^jpaiied, and itjsted. A tour 
of one of the radomes for a 
GlobalStar communicaijom dish 
was a unique experience. More 
infonnation about Qualcomm 
and the GlobalStar system can be 
found on the Internet at [http:// 

After a short drive, the tour 
continued on to the SpaceDev 
facilities. SpaceDev has been 
described in the media as the 

world^s first private space pro- 
gram. They have been in the 
business for a little over three 
years and have recently mo\ eti 
into a renovated indoor gun 
range with plent)^ of space for 
oiilces, meeting rooms, a clean 
room, and labs. The tour visited 
all of their facilities and in- 
cluded a presentation by Jim 
Benson, their founder, chairman 
atid CEO, widi supportive ioibr- 
matjon from Rex Ridenoure, the 
chief mission aichiiect. As a 
company they have not yet built 
any hardware that is in space, 
but many of the individuals in 
SpaceDev have. Their vice 
president of Space Engineering 
is Jan King W3GEY. Jan has 
been die key developer ot^ many 
amateur- radio satellites, and in 
recent years, several commer- 
cial projects. Check out [htlp://]. 

More meetings 

Simdav afternoon marked the 
beginning of the AMSAT board 
of directors meeting. There were 
many topics for discussion, A 
complete transcription of the is- 
sues and resolutions will be 
available in the AMSAT Journal, 
A few^ of the major items in- 
cluded Phase 3D activities, the 
MOST project, ham radio on the 
International Space Station, and 
upcoming hamsats built by 
educational insUiutions, 

With a launch coniraci in 
hand, AMSAT is now focused 
on the final preparation efforts 
to ship the satellite to Kourou. 
The Orlando lab personnel will 
complete final spin balancing 
and checkout with P3D project 
manager Karl Meinzer DJ4ZC 
and his group. 

AMSAT-NA volunteers ure 
currently working with Robert 
Zee VE3REZ, the Space Flight 
Laboratorj' Manager at the Uni- 
versity of Toronto Institute for 
Aerospace Studies, as mentors 
for the MOST (Micro Oscilla- 
tions of STars) satellite. The 
main pay load is a small, fully 
steerablc telescope system. The 
amateur-radio pay load will in- 
clude an L-bMid ( 1 .2 GHz) and 
S-band {2.4 GHz) communica- 

tions system (wideband DSP- 
based) coupled to a wideband 
remote-controlled receiver for 
propagation studies. The ham 
hardware is to weigh about 
four pounds, gets five watts of 
DC power, and fits into an 8.5- 
by 11- by T-tnch area of the 
satellite. The ham package has 
been dubbed 'LEAST" for 
Lots of Extra Amateur Stuff on 
the Telescope. While MOST 
does not yet have a ride to 
space, launch is hoped for in 

The Hurry of new small sat- 
ellites, huik by universities and 
operating in the ham bands, has 
generated some concern in the 
amatcLir-radio com ni unity. The 
AMSAT board of directors has 
been monitoring these projects 
for years and has published 
guidelines on what is, and what 
is not, a "hamsat." With die re- 
cent debacle of Swatch Sat/Beat- 
nik, the small sputniklikc satellite 
with commercially-nriented 
voice messages, AMSAT and 
universities with small satellite 
programs have been careful to 
stay within reasonable and legal 
hounds. The hamsal guidelines 
can he found at the AMSAT 
home page on the Internet: 
lhlip://w ww.amsai,org] . 

The board of directors meet- 
ing left all participaniii with an 
upbeat, enthusiastic feeling 
about AM SAT's projects for the 
upcoming year. Phase 3D has a 
luiLirc. New amateur- radio sat- 
ellites from many sources have 
been launched in 1999. are be- 
ing built, or arc in design. Next 
year's meeting will be held in 
Portland. Maine. Plan to attend 

A vast arrav of hamsats is 


nnw^ in orbit. The best way to 
prepare for Phase 30 is to oper- 
ate via the current hamsat fleet. 
The ^'Proceedings of the .AM- 
SAT-NA 17th Space Sympo- 
sium" is available from AMSAT 
t(301) 589-6062] for $15,00. 
Many of the talks can be heard 
via the Internet at [hltp://www,]. Information 
about current satellites can be 
found at [hitp://www.amsat 
orgj. Check it out! 

52 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

Number S^ pn ypur Feedback C9f4 


Listings are free of charge as space permits. Please send us 
your Calendar item two months in advance of the issue you 
want it to appear in. For example, if you want it to appear in 
the March issue, we should receive it by December 3t Pro- 
vide a clear, concise summary of tf^e essential details about 
your Calendar item. 

JAN 8 

LOVELAND. CO Tfie Northern 
Colorado ARC will host their 
Superfest from 9 a,m,-3 p*m. at 
the Larimer County Fairgrounds. 
700 Railroad Ave. VE exams, 
commercial exhibits, compulers, 
radios and more. Reserve tabfes 
from Michael Robinson N7MR. 
(970) 225-7501; or [michael^ 
frii.CQm}. TalkHn on 145.1 15 (-1 00 
Hz) or 146.52. For detailed infor- 
mation, see the Web page at 
[wwwJnfo2000. net/^ncarc], 

JAN 15 

ST JOSEPH, MO The 10th 

annyal Northwest Missoun Winter 
Hamfest will be held on Jan. tSth. 
8 a.m,-3 p.m. at the Ramada Inn 
in St. Joseph. There will be special 
room rates for hamfest partic- 
ipants. The motel is located at I- 
29 and Frederick Ave. {exit 47 on 
1-29}. Talknn on 146.85 and 
444.925. VE exams, major ex* 
hibitors, and flea market all 
indoors. Free parking. Admission 
$2 each or 3 for S5 in advance; at 
the door S3 each or 2 for $5, Swap 
tables 6 ft. by 2.5 ff. are SI each 
for the first two tables. 3 or more 
for S20 each. This includes two 
cha(rs and a ticket. Commercial 
exhibitors welcome, write for 
details: Northwest Missouri Winter 
Ham lest, c/o Dick Merrill 
KCOAMY, P.O. Box 1533. St, 
Joseph MO 64502; or catf (816) 

JAN 16 

HAZEL PARK, Ml The Hazel 
Park ARC will hofd their 34th 
Annual Swap & Shop at the Hazel 
Park High School, 23400 Hughes 
St., Hazel Park Ml. Open to the 
public 8 a-m,-2 p.m. General 
admission is S5 in advance or at 
the door. Plenty of free parking. 
Tables are SI 4 each and reset* 
vations for tables must be re- 
ceived with a check. No reser- 

vations by phone. Talk-in on 
146.64(-) the DART reptr. For 
more info about the swap, tickets 
or table reservations mail with an 
SASE to HPARa RO. Box 368, 
Hazel Park Ml 48030. 

YONKERS.NY The Metro 70 cm 
Network (WR2MSN) will present 
thetr Computer and Electronic 
Flea Market at Lincoln High 
School, Kneeland Ave., Yonkers 
NY, starting at 9 am. Vendor 
setup at 7 a.m- Free parking, 
Admittance is $6; under 12 years 
free, Taiknn on 440.425 PL 1 56.7; 
or 146,910 PL 114. Vendors 
should calf WB2SLQ after 7 p.m. 
at (9t4) 969*1053; or E-mail 
[] to register 
This show will be held alMndoors. 

JAN 23 

BABYLON, NY A special day of 
educatiori for amateur radio will be 
heid on Long Island on Sunday, 
Jan. 23rd. 200O. This event wiil 
include technical forums on ail 
aspects of amateur radio. It is not 
a flea market or hamfest. There 
will be no items for sale. Some of 
the forums will be on license 
restructuring, antennas. DXing, 
contesting, purchasing amateur 
radio e<iuipment. packet. FLEX- 
NET, ARES. APRS, satellite com- 
munications, and QRP (low 
power). There wril also be a YL 
forum on issues concerning women 
amateur radio operators^ and even 
more forums for everyone. In 
addition, there will be Information 
booths for all the participating 
amateur radio dubs in the New 
York City/Long Island area, as well 
as booths lor the ARRL. QCWA, 
a tune-up dinrc and DXCC/WAS 
card checking. The event is "'Ham 
Radio University 2000" and will be 
held Sunday. Jan. 23rd at the 
Babylon Town Hall Annex on 
Phelps Lane in Babylon NY. It will 
be open to the public 9 a.m. -3 
p.m. Donation $2.00. Spouses. 

and children under 12 will be 
admitted free. Ample free partying. 
For more info contact Phit Lewis 
N2MUN at [lewisp@hazeltine. 
com] or call (5Wf 226-0693. The 
talk-in will be on the Great South 
Bay ARC repealer on 146,685, 
136.5 PL 

JAN 30 

DOVER, OH The Tusco ARC 
Hamfest will be held at the Ohio 
National Guard Armory^ 2800 
North Wooster Ave., Dover OH, 
Exit interstate 77 at Exit ^87 
(Strasburg), Turn right at the exit 
stop sign, heading south on 
County Road 74 to the first traffic 
light. Continue through the traffic 
Kght intersection. The anTrory is on 
the right. TalkHn/check-in on 
U6.730{-}. Admission is a S3 
donation at the door. Dealers 
admitted at no charge. Tables are 
$10 each. The buiiding opens at 

6 a.m. for setup and wiil be open 

8 a.m -1 p.m. for the public. Food 
will be avaiiabJe on site, and after 

7 a.m. at the restaurant next door. 
An ARES forum will also be 
featured. For more info and to 
reserve tables, contact Billy L 
Harper KB8C0G. P.O. Box 80407, 
Canion OH 44 703. Tel (330) 434- 
4634; Fax: (330) 484-4683: E-mail 
[bharper© neo. rr. com}. 

FEB 11-13 

ORLANDO, FL The Orlando ARC 
will sponsor the 53rd Orlando 
Hamcation Show and the ARRL 
Slate Convention, at the Central 
Florida Fairgrounds, located on 
Rl, 50 Colonial Dr.. 3 miles west 
of 1-4. Open Fri., Feb. 11 th, 5 
p.m,-9 p.m.; Sat.* Feb. 12th, 9 
a-m.-S p.m.: and Sun,. Feb. 13th, 

9 a.m. '3 p.m. Over 150 com- 
mercial booths, over 400 swap 
tables. RV camping with elect, and 
water, SI 6 per night in advance 
or $20 at the gate. Admission S7 
in advance or $9 at the gate. 
Commerciai booths $225. swap 
tables $35 in advance or S45 at 
the gate- Tailgate $25 in advance 
or S35 at the gate. Price is tor 
Ihree days. Setup Fri., Feb. 11th 9 
a.m.-4 p.m. Talk-in on 146.760(-). 
VE exams, must register in 
advance. Cali Gfl Lineberry at 
(407) 843-4112. You can join the 
foxhunt by registering by 4 p,m, 
at the info booth. Seminars, 
lectures, demonstrations, and 
special guest speakers. Check the 

Web site for up-to-date info at 
Contact Ken Chnsten^on, 5548 C 
Cinderlane Pky., Ortando FL 
32808: teL (407)291-2465: or E- 
mail [KD4JQR @arri. net], 

FEB 13 

MANSFIELD, OH The Mansfield 
Mid 'Winter Hamfest and Com- 
puter show will be held Sun., Feb. 
13th at the Richland County 
Fairgrounds in Mansfield. Doors 
open to the public at 7 a.m. Tickets 
are S4 in advance, S5 at the door. 
Tables are $10 in advance, S12 
at the door, if available. Advance 
ticket/table orders must be re- 
ceived and paid by Feb. IsL For 
additional info on advanced 
iTCkets or tables, send SASE to 
Pat Akerman N8Y0B. 63 N. 
Illinois Ave., Mansfield OH 44905: 
ortel. (419)589-7133 For talk-in 
call WSWEon 146.34/.94. 


DEC 10^11 

County ARC will operate W9 WWL 
1 500Z Dec. 10th-2200Z Dec. 1 1 th 
in celebration of the Christmas 
season. Operation will be on 
General 75, 40. and 20 meters. 
QSL with an SASE for a certificate 
to CCARC, 1805 E. 8ih SL, 
Jeffersonville IN 47130 USA. 

DEC 31 -J AN 2 

of Austin TX will operate using the 
special callsign W2T, 1100 UTC 
Dec. 31st-2400 UTC Jan. 2nd. 
SSB operation will be on 7.230, 
14.340, 21.410 and 28.350 MHz. 
For a certificate, send a large 
SASE with 2 stamps (see Web 
site for details). Send QSL to 3M 
A RC—W3MRC, A 1 4 7^55-03, 
6801 Riverpface Blvd., Austin TX 
78726-9000 USA. See {www. 
qsLnet/wSmrc] for more info. 

SAVE 47%! 

on 1 2 months of 

Only $24.97 

Call 800-274-7373 

73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1 999 53 

fiumb^ 54 on your F^^tsek csrtf 







3 Ls 4 2m 

Long Beach Long Wf re 

Easy Antenna Reference 

Easy Antenna Reference 

EZ'BZ Deck Antenna 


How to Turn a Deaf Ear 

Isotron Notes 

My Old Kentucky (Satellite) Home 

No Bum Steer 

Screwy Mobile Antenna Wods 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Telescoping PVC Mast 

The Ultra-Simple 20 

The VK Winged Flapper 

Three-Element Circular Quad 

Transmitting Ferrite Loop 

Triband Vertical Array-.. 

Y2K Portable J-Pole 


Kiwi SSTV 
TV Tutor 


All About Op Amps 

Big-Time Bench Supply 

Euthanasia Keyer Project 

Everyman s Guide to Active Fitter Design 


Here Comes the Sun 

Mods for the OHR 100A 

Operating Crystals on the Fifth Overtone 

PlC-based DTMF Project 

The Franklin VFO 


Building a Better Collrns 

Card^File 40 

Ham Station Control and Monitor 

Home-Brew a Customized HF Amplffier 

Home-Brewing a 3 kW+ Dummy Load 

Its Senior Spider vs. Y2Ki 

PIC Key. PIC Key 

Regens for the Miflennium 

Radto Fun in tt^e Sun 

The Amazing Wiebelfeltzer 

We Must Be Dreaming 

CW - Cocf# 

Enjoy CW Rag-Chewing 
Euthanasia Keyer Project 
Keys to Good Code 
PIC Key, PIC Key 
Why Not b-Morse? 

Digital Modes 

Ham to Ham 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 

54 73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 

Three-element stubfed coaxial vert. 

Beach kite antenna 

Quick basics for a quick decision 

Part 2: More options 

20-meter dipote with linear loading 

Another look at the Fractal Quad Yagi 

... With your antenna. 

Simple tips 

Satellite antennas 

Maximize your loop's performance 

Fine-tune that screwdriver-type... 

Part 1 : tntro and dummy load project 

Getting it up in awkward places 

20-meter band transmitting antenna 

Mobiie antenna design 

For 10m 

For 80/160 

for Big 120^ Bandwidth Signal 

Full-size roll-up antenna 

How ttiey do it in ZL-land 
How to gel started in SSTV 

And then some. 

Highly regulated SCR design 

Quick and painless Iambic 

Now you know 

Repeater code-practice sessions 

Part 2: Geomagnetic monitoring 

Make a popular ORP rig even better 

Feedback type oscillator circuit 

Build this decoder and learn. 

A project for the serious home-brewer 

Add this SI solid state repfacement... 

A direct conversion ORP transceiver 

Can you do without this? 

Boost your output 

Check out your big gun amplrter 

Build this ORP rig now—j^st in case, 

A simple CW keyer 

Part 2: Winding Colis 

Complete soiar-powered ORP station, 

CW filter 

Home-brew receiver project 

Pointers fof 11*1 communicating 

Quick and painless Iambic 

Secrets of sending precise Morse code 

A simple CW keyer 

Preserve your Morse code 

Microprocessor Chips 

SSTV. APRS, and packet 

Budget portable/mobile digital 


RITTY (a program by K6STI) 




JAN 18 


JUL 39 


FEB 52 




MAY 16 


OCT 18 


AUG 13 


NOV 24 




NOV 34 




AUG 16 




FEB 21 


JUL 20 


JUN 17 


MAR 14 


MAY 33 


SEP 16 


AUG 20 


DEC 22 


AUG 24 


DEC 10 


JUN 37 


MAR 26 




FEB 34 


FEB 30 


JUN 30 


AUG 10 


FEB 24 


NOV 19 


MAY 10 


AUG 39 


JAN 10 


MAY 22 


JUL 34 


SEP 10 


JUL 22 


AUG 30 




FEB 10 


MAR 55 


JUN 37 


MAR 31 


SEP 10 


NOV 1 8 


JAN 43 


JAN 54 


FEB 47 


MAR 46 


MAY 50 


JUN 52 


JUL 52 

The Drgitai Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Digital Port 
The Missing Link: A FSK Interface 


73^s DX Dynasty Award 
Planning a DXpeditJon 


Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 
Never Say Die 


Hams With Class 

Emergency Preparations 

On the Go 
On rhe Go 
On the Go 
On the Go 
On the Go 
On the Go 
On the Go 


LM- and BC-221 Frequency Multiplier 

General Interest 

1998 Annual Index 


From the Ukraine: A Radio Amateur's Story 

From the Ukraine: A Radio Amateur's Story 

Getting Your Foot in the Public Service Door 

Here Comes tJie Sun 

Here CcMnes the Sun 

Secret Death Ray 

Signals From the Ice 

The Pluck of the Irish 

Why Not Renew On-Une? 

High Frequency 

Home-Brew a Customized HF Amplifier 

On the Go 


Mods for the OHR 100A 
Regens for the MIHenntum 
Screwy Mobile Antenna Mods 

New Products (by manufacturer) 

Adonis USA 




CAIG Laboratories 

Coleman Company 

Consumer Information Center 


ChromaSound program 

PSK31 gets even belter 

PSKGNR software 


Put this new mode into action! 

Awards List 
Here's what to do 

Peorta!, License Drop, Bad News 
Cancer!, The Odds. Karison 
Med. research, Advertising basics 
May Fool issue. Trust Your Doctor 
Kids Killing Kfds. Sugar, Schools Suck 
Why You Get Sick. More Mooning 
Y2K. etc. 

Art Bell W60BB. Licenses plummeting 
Writing for 73. Dayton 1999 
60-year ARRL membership 
The Latin Exam; Progress 

Famous folks 

Y2K thoughts 

More on Y2K 

What should we be doing to prepare? 

Y2K continued 

Even more Y2K 

Floyd inierrupts the routine 

Hunicane encore 

Generate signals up to 1000 MHz 

Six-page guide to 73 

You already use it... 

Behind the Iron Curtain 

Part 2: Water-cooled amp? 

How to get your club involved .„ 

Part 1: Cycle 23 and you 

Part 2: Geomagnetic monitoring 

Or is HAARP a useful science tool? 

Alaska's Matanuska Glacier 

Was Wee Mac a leprechaun...? 

Here's how to untangle the FCC Web 

Boost your output 

A value statement 

Make a popular QRP rig even better 
Part 1 : A new look at an old friend. 
Fine-tune that screwdriver-type.,. 

AM-7500E amplified desktop mike 
Alinco DJ-X10T Wtde Range Rcvr, 
ATR-30 True Legal Urnit^'^ ant tuner 
Soidenng Catalog 
New catalog 
ULTIMITE Generator 
No Smoking Stickers 


AUG 46 


SEP 45 


OCT 43 


NOV 52 


DEC 39 


AUG 27 


JAN 34 


NOV 14 


JAN 4 


FEB 4 


MAR 4 


MAY 4 




JUL 4 


AUG 4 


SEP 4 


OCT 4 


NOV 4 


DEC 4 


FEB 51 


JUN 47 


JUL 51 


AUG 44 


SEP 52 


OCT 53 


NOV 50 


DEC 42 



FEB 17 


JAN 36 


MAR 23 


JAN 24 


JUN 21 


SEP 30 


JAN 28 


FEB 34 


DEC 14 


MAR 20 


MAR 10 


DEC 24 

JAN 10 


FEB 46 


FEB 30 


JUN 10 


JUN 28 


FEB 48 


JUL 48 


MAR 48 


AUG 48 


MAR 48 


MAY 48 


SEP 48 

73 Amateur Rsdlo Today • December 1999 55 

Cutting Edge Enterprises 

Cutting Edge Enterprises 

Cutting Edge Enterprises 

Cutting Edge Enterprises 

Cutting Edge Enterprises 

Dynamic Electronics 

George Murphy 

Glen Martin Engineering 








Jensen Tools 

MCM Electronics 















MFJ Publishing 

MFJ Publishing 


Morse Express 

Morse Express 


NCG Company 

NCG Company 

Orion Microsystems 

Peet Bros. 

Premier Communications 

RF Nulink 


Silver Lake Tech. 

Svetlana Electron Devices 



Tippecanoe Radio Co. 

The Radio Works 


Wahl Electronics 

Wavesure, LLC 

Power Supplies 

Emergency Power for Hams 

HT Porta-Power Project 

The Evolution of Power Supplies 

Tracking Dual-Voltage Power Supply 

Your Batteries Ready tor Y2K? 


It's Senior Spider vs. Y2KI 

Mods for the OHR 100 A 







56 73 Amateur Radio Today 

PowerPort PocketPRO^ 
PowerSate 2000 
Quick Draw Holster 
The Radio Badge 
Worid Pack^" backpack 
LP-1 Lightning Surge Protector 
HAMCALC v,38 diskette 
Roller beanng set 


Low-Noise Receiver Preamps 

LPN series preselectors 

UHF Exciters and Recvrs. T304, R304 

1C-T81 A Handheld 

IC-706MKIIG All mode rig 

IC-2eOOH dual-band FM Xceiven 

Latest catalog 

Free Catalogs 

Dual-band VHF/UHF SWR/pwr meter 

HamGear"^"^ Tactical Chest Harness 

Helping Hands bench assistant 

Helping Hands tool kit 

MFJ- 125 DXer's Dream 24-hr clock 

MFJ-126 quartz wall clock 

MFJ-731 RF measurement filter 

MFJ-S01 Field Strength Meter 

MFJ*922 VHF/UHF antenna tuner 

Model 1817 HT antenna 

MFJ-2911 and K HandyPal™ Earbud 

MFJ-4t2S MightUte™ SPS 

MFJ-0121 World Band Receiver 

Super Ni-MH AA batteries 

Ladder Crystal Rlters 

Radio Components Handbook 

8-320^0 BmteFORCE™ amplifier 

Chinese Army <PLA) Keys 

Ouadrlom TA-1 dual paddle 

♦HAMCALC version 40 

Comet CA-HV & CA-UHV mobile ants. 

Natcomm MH-510 HTTrlbander Ant. 

NEC4W1N95 antenna simulattgns sftw. 

Weather stations 

PRYME MMC-100 Sun Vfsor Mike 

9600B Wireless Networking Base Sta. 

LAB Box-IT enclosures 

Print Screen Works software 

3CX800A7, 8874/3CX400A7 triodes 

PROsat for Windows i" 

Model ZK-1 Key 

Navy Model ZR-1 Crystal Radio Set 

T-4G Line Isolator^*^ 

Code Wamor Jr. 


Nighthawk Microllght II 

6as. Wind. So^ar 

Portable extended power pkg. for HTs 
Part 2: Switching techniques 
Build something handy 
Electrifying tidbits... 

Bufid this QRP rig now— just in case. 
Make a popular QRP rig even better 
Hybrid ICs 

Design your own PC board 
Demise of the packet modem kit 
PC board using photo resist method 
SST CW transceivers 
Heathkit HW*d 


JUL 48 


OCT 48 


OCT 48 


SEP 48 


JUN 48 


MAR 48 


JUL 48 




FEB 48 


NOV 48 


AUG 48 


JUN 48 


DEC 48 


JUN 48 


NOV 48 


JAN 48 


MAY 48 


SEP 48 


MAY 48 


OCT 48 


OCT 48 


JUL 48 


OCT 48 


JUN 48 


AUG 48 


MAR 48 


MAY 48 


JAN 48 


SEP 48 


JUN 48 


SEP 48 


SEP 48 


FEB 48 


MAR 48 


JUL 48 


OCT 48 


DEC 48 


SEP 48 


AUG 48 


JAN 48 


FEB 48 


DEC 48 


FEB 48 


SEP 48 


AUG 43 


MAR 48 


MAY 40 


NOV 48 


SEP 48 


JAN 48 


DEC 48 


JAN 48 


NOV 48 


JUL 10 


OCT 15 


JAN 21 


FEB 55 


NOV 28 


JUL 34 


FEB 30 


FEB 45 


MAR 44 


MAY 52 


JUN 50 


SEP 53 


OCT 41 

December 1999 

MFJ Switching Poiver Supplies 

Power your HF transceiver^ 2 meter/440 MHz mobile/base and accessories 
with these new 25 or 45 Amp MFJ Mighty Lite^^ Switching Power Supplies! 
No RF hash . , . Super lightweight . . . Super small • . . Volt/Amp Meters • • • 

MFJ's new adjustable voltage switch- 
ing power supplies do it all! Power your 
HF or 2M/440 MHz radio and accessories. 

MFJ's Mighty^Lites'''' are so light and 
small you can carry them in the palm of 
your hand! Take them with you anywhere. 

No more picking up and hauling around 
heavy, bulky supplies that can give you a 
painful backache, pulled muscle or hernia. 

MFJ's 25 Amp MightyLite'^^ weighs 
just 3;7 lbs, - that's 5 times lighter than an 
equivalent conventional power supply. 
MFJ's 45 Arnp is even more dramatic — S 
times lighter and weighs just 5.5 pounds! 

No RF hash! 

These babies are clean . . . Your bud- 
dies won't hear any RF hash on your sig* 
nail None in your receiver either! 

Some competing switching power sup- 
phes generate objectionable RF hash in 
your transmitted and received signal. 

These super clean MFJ MightyLites^^ 
meet all FCC Class B regulations. 

Loiv Rippte * . * Highly Regulated 

Less than 35 mV peak-to-peak ripple 
under 25 or 45 amp full load, t.oad regula- 
tion is better than L5% under full load. 

FuUy Protected 

You won't bum up our power supplies! 

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They are fully protected with Over Voltage 
and Over Current protection circuits. 

W&rfdwlde VersatUity 
MFJ MightyLites^^^ c^n be used any- 
where in the world! They have switchable 
AC input voltage and work from 85 to 135 
VAC or 170 to 260 VAC, Replaceable fuse. 
MightyLites^^^ , , , Mighty Features 

Front" pan el control lets you var^^ out- 
put from 9 to 15 Volts DC- 

Front-panel has easy access five-way 
binding posts for heavy duty use and ciga- 
rette lighter socket for mobile accessories. 
MFJ''4245MV has two sets of quick-con- 
nects on the rear for accessories. 

Brightly illuminated 3 inch meters let 
you monitor load voltage and current. 

A whisper quiet internal fan efficiently 

cools your power supply for long life. 
Trm models to choose front . . . 

MFJ-4225MV, $149.95. 25 Amps 
maximum or 22 Amps continuous. Weighs 
3.7 pounds. Measures 5V4Wx4'AHx6D in. 

MFJ-4245MV, S199.95. 45 Amps 
maximum or 40 Amps continuous. Weighs 
5.5 pounds, fvleasures 7V2Wx4V4Hx9D in. 


NEW! 25 Amp MightyUte 

Super light, super MFJ4P5 
compact switchitig 2^.^!v$. 

power supply del iverrs $ 1 AO^^ 
25 Amp s ma xi m u m/22 ^.Hi 
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13.8 Volts DC Low ripple, highly regulated. Na 
MF Hmh! Five-way binding posts for high current, 
Quick comicct.^ tor ac;cei>sories. Over voltage/cur- 
rent proieciion. 110 or 220 VAC operation. Meets 
FCC Class B regs. 3.5 Ibs: S'AiWxl/oHxlO^AD in 

MFJ 35/30 Amp Adiustable Regulated DC Power Supply 

Massive 19.2 pound transformer . . . No RF hash . . • Adjustable 1 to 14 VDC . . • 

ft ■ Jg0^9S MFJ*s heavy duty 
^ "P aF conventional power sup- 
plus s&h ply is excellent for pow- 

ering HF or 2 Meter/440 MHz 

A massive 19.2 pound transformer 
makes this power supply super heavy duty! 
It delivers 35 amps maximum and 30 amps 
continuous without even flexing its mus- 
cles. Plugs into any 1 10 VAC wall outlet. 

It's highly regulated with load regula- 
tion better than 1 %. Ripple voltage is less 
than 30 mV. No RF hash — it's super clean! 

Fully protected — has over voltage pro- 
tection, fold back short circuit protection 
and over-temperature protection. 

You get front panel adjustable voltage 
from 1 to 14 VDC with a convenient detent 
set at 13.8 VDC. A pair of front -panel 
meters let you monitor voltage and current. 

Three sets of output terminals include a 
pair of heavy duty five -way binding posts 
for HF/VHF radios, two pairs of quick-con- 
nccts for accessories and a covered ciga- 
rette lighter socket for mobile accessories. 

A front-panel fuse holder makes fuse 
replacement easy. Whisper quiet fan speed 
increases as load current increases — keeps 
components cooh 9V2Wx6Hx9V4D inches. 

MFJ High Current Multiple DC Power Outlets 

Power two HF/VHF transceivers and six or more accessories from your 12 VDC power supply 


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MFJ- 1 118 and six or more accessories 
%^W^9& from your transceiver's main 12 

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MFJJJ 16 ,5y|-y 3Q ^^p 5_v^^ay binding 

^^m^m posts connect your transceivers. 

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Built-in 0-25 VDC vohnieter. Six feet 
super heavy duty eight gauge color- 
coded cable with ring tongue terminals. 
Binding posts are spaced for standard 
dual banana plugs. Heavy duty alu- 
minum construction. 12'/;2x2V4x2V2 in. 

MFJ-1116, $49,95, Similar to MFJ- 
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and 0-25 VDC voltmeter. 15 amps total 

IVfFJ-1 1 12, $34,95. Similar to MFJ- 
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Radio Fun in the Sun 

Simple Direct-Conversion Receiver 

Radio Diraotion Finding, Fox IHunts 

Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 
Homing In 


We Must Be Dreaming 


Instruction Instructions 

Read All About It! 
Tlie History of Ham Radio 
The History of Ham Radio 
YoUf Too, Can Be an SOB 

Reviews (by manufacturer] 

Central IVIactiinery 


Idiom Press 
Oak Hills Research 
Oak Hills Research 
Oak HfIIs Research 
Small Wonders Labs 
Small Wonders Labs 

Wildemess Radio 
Wilderness Radio 
Wilderness Radio 

Reviews (by product) 

12"incli Shear, Press Brake and Siip Roll 

K2 radio receiver kit 
IC-706MKII Shack-in-a-box 
KC2 multifunction accessory kit 

Logikeyer III Memory Keyer 

NorCal 40A kit 

OHR 100A single band transceiver kits 

OHR 500 5-band CW transceiver Kit 

Sierra multiband superhet transceiver 

SW+ transceiver kit 

T301 - Our Exciting Hew Fox 

Ten-Tec 1254 

WM-20 SSB transceiver kit 

WM-2 Wattmeter 

Satellite Operation, EME, Space 










My Old Kentucky (Satellite) Home 

Test Equipment 

Basic Transceiver Tester 
Home-Brewing a 3 kW+ Dummy Load 

5S 73 Am^tour Radio Today • December 1999 

More HW-8 

Complete solar powered QRP station. 

For QRPers and receiver aficionados 

A banner year 

Mobile T'hunting, international-style 
A rechargeable alternative 
Dayton, Portland, and South Texas 
Grungebusters; RACES to the rescue 
Four centuhes of foxhunting 
Dayton does DF 
ARDF Championships 

Home-brew receiver project 

Discover hidden savings ... 

Pan 1 of Techno-Thvia 

Parts 1 and 2: to 1920 

Parts: 1920-21 

Hams should be heard but not seen 

12-inch Shear, Press Brake, Slip Roll 

K2 radio receiver kit 

T301 ^Our Exciting New Fox 

IC-706MKII Shack-in-a-box 

Logikeyer ill f^emory Keyer 

OHR 100A single band transceiver kits 

OHR 500 5-band CW transceiver kit 

WM'2 QRP Wattmeter kit 

Small Wonders WM-20 SSB Xcvr, kit 

SW-h transceiver kit 

1254 Microprocessor-controlied Rcvr, 

KC2 multifunction accessory kit 

NorCal 40A kit 

Sierra multiband superhet trahscv. 

Central Machinery 



Wilderness Radio 

Idiom Press 

Wilderness Radio 

Oak Hills Research 

Oak Hills Research 

Wilderness Radio 

Small Wonders Labs 



Small Wonders Labs 

Oak Hills Research 

16th Annual Space Symposium 

Sputnik 41; RS-IS; SATEDU 


Delta II launcher, ARGOS, ORSTED 

UoSAT 12, RS^19 


Field Day 1999; Portable toys 

JAWS AT, ASUSat-1 , OPAL/PalconSat 

Keeping up with the changes. 

Satellite antennas 


NOV 51 


AUG 30 

Sel en 

SEP 38 


JAN 52 


FEB 42 


MAR 42 


MAY 45 




JUL 47 


SEP 54 


OCT 54 


FEB 10 

A good beginner's project 
Check out your big gun amplifier 


AUG 35 


DEC 26 


OCT 31 


NOV 41 


JUL 27 


AUG 34 


MAR 37 


MAY 20 


FEB 28 


MAR 39 


MAR 39 


MAR 38 


MAR 38 


NOV 32 


MAR 33 




MAR 39 


MAR 39 


MAR 39 


AUG 34 


MAR 37 


FEB 28 


MAR 39 


MAR 39 


MAR 39 


MAR 39 


MAR 38 


MAR 39 


MAR 38 


MAY 20 


JUL 28 


NOV 32 


MAR 38 


JAN 46 


MAR 53 


MAY 43 






AUG 50 


SEP 50 


OCT 51 


DEC 45 




NOV 26 


MAY 22 

Need a UHF Dipper? 
Need a UHF Dipper? 
Need a UHF Dipper? 
Simple RF Signal Generator 


Defogging Micro strips 

Easy Antenna Reference 

Easy Antenna Reference 

The Evofution of Power Supplies 

Networking with Thevenin and Kirchhoff 

Regens for the Millennium Par! 2 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

Secrets of Transmission Lines 

The Long-Lost Art of Conversational CW 

TV Tutor 


Al] About Op Amps 

Mods for the OHR 100 

Never Say Die 

Regens for the Millennium, Part 1 

Part 1; Old TV tuners to the rescue! 
Pan 2; Ej<ternal coupling 
Part 3: Mods for using the tuner 
Add this test gear to your bench 

An intro to microstripline fflters 

Quick basics for a quick decision 

Part 2: More options 

Part 2: Switching techniques 

Network analysis 

Winding Coils 

Part 1: Intro and dummy load project 

Part 2: Review of AC fundamentals 

Part 3: More AC review 

Part 4: Traveling waves 

Part 5: Impedance and reflections 

Know what to say 

How to gel started in SSTV 

AUG 1999 issue, page 24 
FEB 1999 issue, page 32 
JAN 1999 issue {VERVE == FFRF) 
JUN 1999 issue, page 10 


OCT 10 


NOV 10 


DEC 35 


SEP 32 


SEP 19 


FEB 52 


JUN 26 


JAN 21 


MAY 30 


JUL 22 


AUG 16 


SEP 26 


OCT 22 


NOV 37 


DEC 31 


DEC 18 


DEC 22 


NOV 6 


MAR 54 


MAR 54 


JUL 56 


Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 
Above & Beyond 

Ramsey FR-10 FM receiver 
Part 2: The Gunn diode modulator PS 
Extend test equip, to 24 GHz 
Microwave power meters 
Looking for Project Gigantic 
Restoring older myltimode radios 
Tiie IC-202 SSB transceiver 
The InlemeL a new frontier 
Considerations for portable operation 
Microwave update 1999 


FEB 39 


MAR 50 


MAY 40 


JUN 40 


JUL 43 


AUG 42 


SEP 43 


OCT 45 


NOV 46 


DEC 43 

Neuer srv die 

continued from page 48 

been mercilessly harassed by 
FDA teams and the AM A just 
for experimenting with the 
bioeleclrifier. His results, 
with cancer, HIV, and so tm, 
have been so spectacular thai 
he's opening a clinic in Costa 
Rica lo 2ei awav from Ihc 
FDA threats and to make this 
marvelous way of saving 
lives available lu more 

Yes, 1 know, when I stafted 
writing about the bioelec- 
trifier (blood purifier) back in 
1994. you thought Wayne was 
nuts again. Tin used to that. 
Well, it saves many readers 
from bothering to think or do 
any homework. I was crazy 
when 1 predicted tiaat the 
whole world would want to 
share our repeater technol- 
ogy. Back in 1969 I was mak- 
ing phone calls anywhere I 
wanted wiih my Motorola 

HT-220 tVotti the New Hamp- 
shire ski slopes via my re- 
peater. Then I was able to do 
the same when skiing in As- 
pen. 1 was so excited (hat I 
published hundreds of ar- 
ticles and book after book on 
repeaters. The result of the 
ham development of repeater 
technology was the worid- 
wide cell phone system of to- 
day. Crazy Wayne. 

Then the first microcom- 
puter came along a few years 
later The computer industry 
bigwigs said they were toys 
and that I was crazy when I 
said they'd eventually be in 
millions of homes and be on 
just about every desk in busi- 
nesses. T*hose bigwigs are all 
out of business now. 

The music and hi-fi maga- 
zines all sneered at CDs. 
Crazy Wayne started CD Re- 
view, which soon became the 
biggest music magazine in 
the world. 

Have you built a bioelec- 

trifier yet? What's stopping 
you:^ The parts cost under $20- 
May!>e jou're w^aidng until 
your lifestyle kntKks you on 
your ass before Fm able to get 
your attention. I've published 
two articles on how to build 
the device, hut they're all sold 
out The Miller circuit, plus a 
simpler one by Bob Beck, are 
in the Bhelectrifier Hand- 
book, w^hich is $10. See my 
ad on page 63. This book in- 
cludes instructions on how to 
use it. 

The eiectronically chal- 
lenged can buy a Plant Growth 
Stimulator unit lor $155 ppd. 
front ButterOv Products, Box 
1729. Hillsborough NH 03244. 
It has essentially the same cir- 
cuit and will, if you use it as 
intended, stimulate the hell 
out of your plants. This unit 
also includes pure silver wire 
and will make silver colloid 
for you. 

Or you can get in touch 
with me for the address of the 

clinic in Cosia Rica and save 

yourscl f the trouble of building 
a bioeleclril'ier. 

A better approach, 1 feel, is 
lo change your lifestyle so you 
wxin'l need emergency repairs. 
Why wait until cancer, a heart 
attack, stroke, diabetes, ar- 
thritis, mulliple sclerosis, and 
so on have hit? 

And one of 'em surely will 
unless you make some big 

In All Fairness 

An Irish television pro- 
ducer called. He was doing a 
program commemorating the 
Moon landings of thirty years 
ago, and one of his crew was 
a ham who had a copy of my 
Moofuloggle book. Wouftl I 
be available for an interview 
to present the contrarian side? 
The program would run from 
about 11 p.iii. niy lime to 5 

Continued on page 62 
73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 59 


Httmb^ 60 on yomr Feedback card 

Jim Gray W1XU/7 
210 E Chateau Circle 
PaysonAZ 85541 


Season's Greetings! 

DXens can look forward to 
reasonably Good (G) radio 
propagation beiwecnihc Mih and 
17th; Fair (F) DX on the 19th, 
20lh. 23rd. 24th, and 28th; and 
Poor (P) or Very Poor (VP) 
propagation, with an upset to 
active geomagnetic field and a 
disturbed ionosphere on the 
3id through the 6 til, and again 
oil the 29th. The remalninii davs 
show trending conditions (see 

.AJ though winter DX propa- 
gation on die HF band?^ above 
20 meters is generally poorer 
than to the Spring or Fall, be- 
cause excitation of the E and F 
layers in the ionosphere is less, 
the solar tlux index is expected 
lu be up around the 200 level 
at this part of the sunspot cycle 
and DX propagation ought to 
be much belter than it was last 

Please pay particular attention 
tti U'eathercondirions December 
3rd through ihc bth, and again 
on or about die 30th, when se- 
vere winter stonns could occur 
in parts of the United States. 
Other geophysical disturbances 
are also possible here and else- 
where in the world during these 
Ihree or four days, so be prepared. 

Forecasters are undecided 
about the anticipated occurrence 
of Cycle 23's sunspoi maximum. 

Some predict it will occur some- 
time in the year 2000, ^^ hile oth- 
ers — including this writer — 
tend to expect it sometime in 
200 1 . Contrary to earlier expec- 
tations (and hopes) among radio 
amateurs. Cycle 23 is likely to 
rank as less than average, or poor, 
compared to previous recent 

Nevertheless, the gradual de- 
cline of a cycle takes place over 
a period of five or six years un- 
til its sunspot minimum, sn we 
still have a lot of good DX to 
look forward to in Cycle 23. 

January 2000 

Happy New Year! 

As you can see from the cal- 
endar, January will provide ev- 
erything from Good (G) to Very 
Pour (VP) radio propagation 
conditions on the HF bands, 

Briefiy, you may expect sea- 
sonally gotid (G) propagation 
from January 1-10. but condi- 
tions are expected to deteriorate 
for the next three weeks, rang- 
ing from only Fair (F) to Very 
Poor (VP). 

The worst days are antici- 
pated January 14-16, 23-25, 
and 28-30. when a disturbed 
magnetic field and ionospheric 
storms arc likely. Severe signal 
fading and even short-lived 
communications **blackouts" 
over polar propagation paths 
may be expected on HF bands 
above 40 meters. Prepare for 

If youVe a No-Code Tech, and youVe having fun op- 
erating, tell us about it! Other No-Code Techs will 
enjoy reading about your adventures in ham radio- 
end well pay you for your articles. Yes, lots of nice 
dear photos, please. Call Joyce Sawtelle at 800-274- 
7373 to get a copy of *'Hqw to Write for 73 Magazine." 


December 1 999 








1 G*F 

2 F-P 

3 P*VP 

4 VP 

5 VP-P 

6 P 

7 P-F 1 

a F-G 

9 a 

10 G 

11 G 

12 G 



1 5 G 




19 F 

20 F 

21 F-G 


23 F 

24 F 

25 F-G 



28 F 



31 P-F 

other geophysical effects, such 
as severe winter weather in the 
northern hemisphere, during (P) 

and ( VP) peritxls. 

The best advice is to he pre- 
pared with emergency power, 
food, water, and w ami clothing, 
and continue to monitor W\^^V 
ai eighteen minutes after any 
hour for the latest reports of 
Solar Flux, BA. and BK indices. 

The bU-75 and 40-30 meter 
bands should provide some 
good, low-noise activity in the 

US. Canada, and South/Central 
America, but DX \\\\\ depend on 
a relatively quiet magnetic field. 
On the poor days, however don*t 
despair, since transequatorial 
skip and over-ihe-polc.s signals 
will be presenu The polar paths 
wilt be weak and full of echoes, 
whereas I he n-ansequ atonal path 
will provide stronger signals, 
sometinfies even on pot>r days. 
The 160 meter band ought to 
be good for much of the month, 
so Vk'aich Uie calendar for the 


G'.*" D2 &4 T' .a ^u 12 14 16 ie 20 

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20 ' 



































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20 ' 


15 J 





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Table L December Eand-Time-Coiuuvy chart. 

60 73AmatBur Radio Today • December 1999 

January 2000 









1 G 

2 G 

3 G 

4 G 

5 G 

6 G 

7 G-F 

8 F 

9 F-G 

10 G 

11 GF 

12 F 

13 F-P 

14 P-VP 

15 VP-P 



18 F 


20 P-F 

21 F 


23 P 

24 P-VP 

25 VP-P 



28 P-VP 

29 VP-P 

30 P 

31 P-F 

good and fair days. The 20/18 
meter and 15/12 meter bands 
will culler ihe most along with 
10 meters ihis monih, so don't 
expect miracles. Perhaps in Feb- 
ruary we* 1 1 see some improve- 
iiienL and March ought to get us 
back on the road lo good world- 
wide DX conditions on all 
hands. Lefs wail and see. 

Remember lo check the bands 
above and below ihe suggested 

ones for possible DX surprises. 
It's often a good idea lo park 
your receiver on a seemingly 
itnused frequency and just wail. 
A DX station is very likely to 
[>op up before any one else hears 
him, and you can snag a good 

Please note that on the Band- 
Time-Couetry charts, (*) indi- 
cates a possible 80 meter opening 
Good hunting! WlXU/7. 





C4 C^ 08 10 12 




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Numtf^ 6 1 Q/T your F&edbsck card 

Table 2, Jarmarv Band-Time -Country chart. 

Proft?s?»or Lvfiden Mc In tyre 
N8RXL, Sinclair Community 
College, Dayton OH 45402* 
1460; E-mail [lmcintyre@ 
NJnclaii^.iHlu]. Fill sending you 
a teMd listing of PlCKEVrASM 
CV\C Key, PIC Key," Sepi, 
1999, pp. lOffj. Lines 19 and 
20 still give a warning, and any 
changes 1 tried to make 10 these 
lines sllll gave nie a warning or 
message. These two lines are not 
an error las I originally suspected 

— see "Updates,'* October 
1999, p, 64] and do work as 
originally printed. One addi- 
tional fix is a RETURN at the 
end of the Dot suhroutine at line 
47. Without Uiis fix, every dot 
becomes an **A** dit dah. With 
the previous iixes and this, the 
PIC keyer now will work OK, 

Our thanks and those of other 
PfCKeyers go to mRXLforfol' 
lowing through on this article. — 

UC m^Ct coot UC SOKE Ibrr 


astioi '.msMf: 


W0O2 ;AU"lttt; 


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73 Amateur Radio Today * December 1999 61 

Numter 64 on your Fe^back card 

Barter 'n' Buy 

Tum your old ham and computer gear into cash now. Sure, you can 
wait for a hamfest to try and dump it but you know yooll get a tar 
more realistic price if you have it out where 100.000 active ham po- 
tential buyers can see it. rather than the few hundred local hams who 
come by a flea market table. Check your attic, garage, cellar and 
closet shelves and get cash for your ham and computer gear before 
it's too old to sell. You know you're not going to use rt again, so why 
leave it for your widow to throw out? That stuff isn't getting any younger! 
The 73 Flea Market, Barter 'n' Buy. costs you peanuts (almost) — 
comes to 35 cenis a word for individual (noncommercial f) ads and 
$1.00 a word for commercial ads. Don t plan on telling a long story. 
Use abbrevialions. cram it in, Bui be honest. There are plenty of hams 
who love to fix things. SO if it doesn t work, say so, 
Make your list, count the words, indudmg your call address and phone 
number Include a check or your credit card number and expiration. If 
you're placing a commercial ad, include an additional phone number^ 
separate from your ad. 

This is a monthly magazine, not a dally newspaper, so figure a couple 
months before the action starts; then be prepared. If you get too many 
calls, you priced it low. If you don't get many calls, too high. 
So get busy. Slow the dust off, check everything out. make sure it still 
works right and maybe you can help make a ham newcomer or re- 
tired old timer happy with that rig you're not using now. Or you might 
get busy on your computer and put together a list of small gear/parts 
to send to those interested? 

Send your ads and payment to: 73 Magazine ^ Barter 'n' 
Buy, 70 Hancock Rd., Peterborough NH 03458 and get set 
for the ptioiie calls. Tlie deatlline for the April 20C>0 classified ad 
section is February 10, 2{KX), 

President Clinton probably doesn 1 
have a copy of Tormefs Electronics 
Bench Reference but you sfiould. 
Check H out at [ 
-•rtormet/rndex.htm] — over 100 
pages of circuits, tableSt HF design 
Infomiation, sources, etc. 


Copies - 73 Magazine Nov. '53 thru 
Dec. 78. OST Magazine Nov. ^63 
thru Dec. 78. Ham Radio Magazine 
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Box 54t . Suilrvan S Islaod SC 29482, 
TeL (843} 883-3574. BNB73 


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Cash for Colltnsr Buy any Collins 
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(310)670^969. (radK>feo@eanhlink, 
mil BNB425 

HANGUPS Johan N3RF. Send 
81 , Wast>lngton DC 20044 USA. 


Great New Reference Manual with 
over 100 pgs of P/S, transistor, radio, 
op-amp, antenna designs, coil wind- 
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QSL CARDS. Basic Styles: Black 
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WANTED: High capacity 12 volt so- 
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RADtOt by Thomas Appleby (copy- 
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Washington DC 20Q44. Please send 
S25.00 donation with $5,00 for S&H. 


TORI Why buy a ""box ot batteries" 
for huncJreds of dollars? Current regu- 
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S74.50. Same= fc>ut DC powered. 
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62 73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 

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Call 480-970-0963. or E-mail HAM 


contLnuedJrum page 59 

a.m, Sure, no problem. When 
I (Jo the Art Bell .show, Tm on 
from 1 to 6, 

So I boned up on the most 
glaring reasons that convinced 
me ihax the Apollo trips had to 
ha\e been faked. The station 
called at 11 p.m., as promised. 
.'Ground 11:15, they gave me 
my tlrsL opportunily to talk, I 
started out by citing the 
deadiv radiation in the Vitn 
Allen Bell and that dubt with- 
out any atmosphere is like 
concrete, yet ihe photos sup- 
pt)sedly taken on the Moon 
showed dusi kicking up and 
lots of footprints. 

Instead of having me on tor 
the planned six hours of peri- 
odic rebutta] they thanked me 
and quickly hung up. In retro- 
spect, what they expected was 
an amusing ranting by a crazy. 

If It Bleeds 

If it bleeds, it leads — that's 
the TV news mono. Well the 
news shows have been ir)'ijig 
to outdo each oihen so the re- 
cent *'etlinic cleansing" in Yu- 
goslavia has been greai tor 
ralings. Lots of blood, Tm old 
enough so I remember when 
we used 10 call it gencxjide, but 
then **cleansing" is a lot cleaner 
ihan anything ending in cide. 

Bui when did the US gel 

elected lo be the world's po- 
liceman, and by whom? I 
don't recall being con suited - 

We sat by during the Ebo 
genocide in Nigeria, and 
again in Laos and Cambodia^ 
and again in Rwanda, and 
Burundi. We didn't even say 
boo when Mao wiped out 
about 80 million Chinese 
teachers and land ow ners. Nor 
when Stalin did the same 
with his tcacheri^ and military 

So when are we going to 
invade Sri Lanka, Miramar, 
Timor and other genocidal ar- 
eas and put Q stop lo the 
cleansing that is going on all 
around the world? They need 
us in Guatemala, Peru, and 
ai least 50 other countries, 
so let's first get our TV re- 
porters out there, then let's 
follow them up with American 

Our refusal to invade Tibet 
and show those damned Chi- 
nese what's what is an abso- 
lute disgrace, and at least half 
the countries of Africa are 
ripe for an invasion. 

What we need lo do is to 
get busy and invade these 
small countries and set them 
up with proven civiUzcd sys- 
tems such as we have for edu- 
cating our children, providing 
our health care, keeping 
drugs from our children, and 
eliminating poverty. 

Here are some of my bookb whkii 
tan ch^Dge vour life fif you'll M 
*etii). If ibe idea of being healthy, 
weidthy and wifie [nter^Uyou, start 
reading. Yes, you can Iw all that, but 
only when you know the secrets 
wKkh Fve spent a lifetime uncover" 

The Bloelectrifier Handhaok: This 
e:^platn> how to build or bu) < S 155) a 
lit tit* electrical gadget that can help 
clean the blmxl of any virus, microbe^ 
parasite, fungus or yeasi. Tlie process 
was discovered bv scientists al the 
Albert Eiitsiein College of Medicine, 
quickly patented, anii tiu>hed up. It^s 
curing AIDS, hepatitis C and a bunch 
of otlieir serious illnesses. The circuit 
can be built for under S2() from the in- 
suucdons in ilie book. $10 (01) 
The Secret Guide to Wisdom: This 
is a review of around a hundred books 
that will help jou change your life. No, 
I doffl*l sell these books Tliev're on a 
wide range of liubjccts and will help 
to make you a ver>^ interesting person. 
Wait'H you see some of the gems 
you've missed reading, $5 (02) 
The Secret Guide to Weidth: Just as 
with health, m^u^U fuid thai vou have 
been brainwashed by "the system" into 
a pattern of life Lhat will keep you from 
ever making much money and having 
the fireedoni to travel and do what you 
wanr I explain how anyone can gel «i 
drearri job wiili no college, no resumi^, 
and even without any experience. 1 
explain how you can gel someone to 
happi ly pay you to learn whai you need 
to know to start vour own business, S5 

The Secret Guide to Health: Ves* 
there really k a secret to regaining jfiur 
health and adding 30 to 60 years of 
healthy Ii%ing to your life. T\w an:iwer is 
simple^ but it means making some dif- 
ficult lifestyle changes. Will you be 
skiing the slopes of Aspen with me 
when you're 90 or doddering around 
a nursing home? Or pushing up dai- 
sies? No, Vm not selling any health 
products. $5 (04) 

Mv WWII Submarine Adventures: 
Yes, I spent fmm 1943-1 945 on a sub- 
marine, right in the middle of die u ar 
with Japan. Wc almost got sunk sevcial 
times, and tw ice [ was in the right place 
at the right time to save the boat. 
What's it really like to be depth 
charged? And what's the daily life 
aboard a submariite like? How about 
the Amelia Earhart inside story ?lf 
you* re near Mobile, please mit the 

Travel Diaries: You can travel amaz- 
ing ly inexpensively - once you know 

tiie rtjpes.Enjoy Shcny and my budget 
visits to EurtDpe, Russia^ and a bunch 
of other interesting places. How about 
a first class flight to Munich, a rented 
Audi, driving to visit Vienna, Krakow 
in Poland (and the famous salt mines j. 
Prague, back to Muniih. and (he first 
class flight home for two, all for under 
Si, (XX). Yes, when you know how you 
can liavel inexpensively, and ^till stay 
in first class hotels. S5 (1 1 ) 
W^ayne*s Caribbean Adventures: 
More budget travel stories - where I 
visit the hams and scuba di\ c most of 
the islands of the Caribbean. Like the 
special Liat fare w hich allowed us to 
visit 1 1 countries in 2i days, w jih me 
diving 2[[ but one of the islands, 
Guadeloupe, where the hams kept me 
too busy with parties, $5 (12) 
CoJd Fusion Overview: This is both 
a brief historv of cold fusion, which I 
predict w ill be one of the lai^gcst in- 
dustries in the world in die 2]st cen- 
mr>', plus a simple explanation of how 
and why it works. This new field is 
going to |:enerate a whole new bunch 
of billionaires, just as the peri^onal 
computer industry did. $5 (20) 
Cold Fusion Journal: Thev laughed 
when I predicted the PC indusuy 
growth in 1975. PCs are now the third 
largest industn in the world The cold 
fusion ground floor is still wide open, 
but then that might mean giving up 
watctiing ball games, Sample: $10 (22). 
Julian Sch winger: A Nobel lauriate's 
talk about cold fusion — confinning its 
validiiv. S2 f24> 

!mpro%1ng State Guvemmeiit: Here 
are 24 ways thai state governments can 
cut expenses enomiously, while pro- 
viding far better service. 1 explain how 
any govetnnieni bujtau or departinent 
can be gotten to cut it*s expenses by at 
leasi 50% in three vears and do it co- 
operalively and enthusiastically. I ex- 
plain how, by applying a new technol- 
ogy, the state can moke it possible to 
provide all needed services without 
having to levy any ta-xes at allt Read 
die book, run (orynur legislature, and 
let's get busy making iliis country w ork 
like its founders wanted it to. Don 'I 
leave this for "someone else" to do. S5 

Mankind's Exiitiction Predklions: If 
any one of the experts who have WTit- 
ten books predicting a soon- to-come 
catastrophe which will virtually wipe 
us all out are right, we* re in trouble. Irs 
this hook I explain about the various 
disaster scenarios, from Nostradamus, 
who says the poles w ill soon shift* wip- 
ing out 97% of mankind, to Sai Batm, 
who has recently warned his followers 
to get out of Japan and Ausu'alia before 
December 6dT this year. The worst pan 
of these predictions is the accuracy 
leconi of some of the experts. Will it be 
a pole shift, a new ice age. a massive 
solar nare. a comet or asteroid, a 
bioieiTorisi attack, or even Y2K? Tra 
getting ready, how al>out you? $5 (31) 

Moon doggie: After reading Rene*s 

book, NASA Mooned America^ 1 read 
every thing I could tmd on our Moon 
landings. 1 watched the videos, looked 
carefully ai the photos, read the 
astrpnaurs biographies, and talked 
wilh some of my readers who worked 
for NAS.A. This book ciics 25 good 
n^asons 1 believe the whole ApoUo pro- 
gram had to have been faked. S5 (30) 
Classical Music Guide: A list of 100 
CDs which will provide you with an 
outstanding collection trf the finest 
classical music ever written. This is 
whai you need to help you reduce 
stress. Classical music also raises 
youngster's IQs* helps plants grow 
faster, and will make you healthier. Just 
wait' I! you hear some of Goischalk's tabu- 
!ous music! $5 (33) 

The Radar Covenip: is police radar 
dangerous? Ross .\dey K6UI. a world 
authorit}> confirms the dangers of m* 
dio and magnetic fields. S3 (34> 
Three Gatto Talks: A prize- winning 
leacher explains what's wrong with 
.American schools and why our kids are 
tiot being educated. Why are Swedish 
youngsters, who start school at 7 years 
of age. leaving our kids in the dust? 
I Our kids are intentionally being 
dumbed down by our school system 
— the least effective and most expen- 
sive in the world. S5 (35) 
Aspartame: a.k,a. NutraSweett the 
^tutf in diet drinks, etc. con cause all 
kinds f sen on s health problems. Mul- 
tiple sclerosis, for one. Read all about 
it* lliree pamphlets for a buck. (38) 
One Hour CW: Using this sneaky 
method even you can Icam the Morse 
Code in one hour and pass that dutnb 
5wp!n Tech' Plus ham tesit $5 (40) 
Code Tape (T5); This rape will te^tcli 
you the letters, numbers and punctuation 
>ou need to know if you arc going on to 
kam the code at 1 3 or 20 w pm. S5 (41 ^ 
Code Tape tT15): Once you know die 
code for the letters (41) you can go 
inmiediately to copying 13 wpm code 
(using my system). This should only 
take two or three days. S5 (42) 
Code Tape (T20): Stait right out at 20 
wpm and master it in a weekend for 
vour Exua Class license. S5 143) 

Wayne Talks Not at Davlon: This is 
a 90-mmute tape of the talk I'd have 
given at the Dayion, if inviietL $5 (50) 
Wayne Talks at Tampa: This is die 
talk 1 gave at the T^impa Global Sci- 
ences conference 1 cover cold fusion, 
amateur radio, health, books you 
should a^ad, antl so on. S5 (51) 
SI Million Sales \ ideo: How to gen- 
erate e^lra million in sales using PEL 
This will be one of the best investments 
your business ever made. S43 (52) 
ReprinlN of My Ldiloiials fnm\73. 
Grist J: 50 of my best non-ham oriented 
editorials from before 1997. S5 (71) 
Grist 11:50 more ch<*ice non-ham edi- 
torials from before 1997.S5 (72* 
1997 Fditoriids: )4S pages 216 edilo- 
dals discussing health, ideas for new 
businesses, exciting new books T ve dis- 
covered, ways to cure our country's 
more serious problems, flighl 8(K), the 
Oklahoma City bombings mwe Moon 
madness, and so on, SI0(74) 
199S Editorials: 1 68 pages that* U give 
you lots of controversial things to talk 
about on the air. $ 10 (75) 
Silver Wire: With two 3" pieces of 
heavy pure silver wire ^ diree 9 V bat- 
teries you can n^ake a thousand dol- 
lars worth of silver colloid. What do 
you do with it? ll does what the antibi- 
otics do. but gem^s can^t adapi to iL 
Use it to get rid of germs on food, for 
skin fungus, warts, and even lo drink. 
Read some books on the uses of sDver 
colloid if s like magic. SI 5 (80) 
Wavae's Bell Saver Kit. The cable and 
instructions enabling you to inexpen- 
sively tape An Bell W60BB's nightly 
5-hr radio talk show. S5 (83| 
Stuff I didn' t ^\ rite, but you need: 
NASA Mooned America: Rene 
makes an air-tight case that NASA 
faked the Moon landings. This book 
will convince even you, $25 <90) 
Last Skeptic of Science: This is 
Rent's book where he debunks a 
bunch of accepted scientific belief — 
buch as the k:e ages, the Earth being a tnag- 
net, the Moon causing the tides, and etc. 
S25 (91J 

Dark Moon; 568 pages of carefully 
researched proof lhat the Apollo Moon 
landings were a hoa:^. S35 f92> 

ayne Green 

Box 416, Hancock NT! 03449 





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73 Amateur Radio Today • December 1999 63 

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MFJ uses super heavy dmy 
camponents — roller inductor^ 
varmbte capadtors, antenna 
i^wifch and haiun — Hf buUd the 
world ^s most popular high 
power antenna tuner. 

The nii^gcd world famous 
MFJ-9g9C^handJcs 3 KW PEP 
SSB amplifier input power (1500 
Wans PEP SSB output power). 
Covers 1.8 to 30 Ml-lz, includmg 
MARS and WARC bands. 

MFJ's AirCorv^^ roller induct- shortwave — nearly 
or, new gear-driven turns count- any antenna. Use 
er and weighted spinner knob coax, random wire or 
gives you exact inductance eon- balanced lines. 
trol for absolute minimum SWR. Vou gel ev er>thing you've 

You can match dipoles, verri- e\^cr v^ anted in a high power, full Baiun, 5cra/cft-pn3pf Lexan front 
cals, invcned vees, random featured antenna tuner - widest panel -- all in a sleek compact 

wires, beams, mobile whips, matching range, lighted Cross- cabinet { I0-y4Wx4'/7lixl5D m). 



^e Needle S WRWaltnieter, 

massive transmitting 

variable capacitors, 

ceramic antenna switch^ buih-tn 

dummv load. TmeCurrent^^ 

MFJ AirCore''' Roller hidnctor 
gives high-Q» low loss, hiyh effi- 
ciency and high power liandling, 

MFJ^s exclusive Self 
Resonance Killer'* keeps dam- 
aging self*rcsonances a^^;iy from 
your operating frequency. 

Large, self-cleaning wiping 
contact gives good low -resistance 
connection. Solid 1/4 inch brass 
shaft, self-align bearings give 
smooth no n -bin ding rotation. 
MFJ No ,\faner Uhaf^' \\ajTant\ 

I^IFJ w ill repair or replace 
your MFJ-9KyC (at our option) 
no matter what for one year. 

More hams use MFJ tuners than all other tuners in the world! 

MFi-986 Two knob KHH^rettHaUr'^ 

MFJ-949C ifeltnre 300 Wait Tkiner 

More hants 
me MFJ-949S 
than anv other ^^ ^,^ 

antenna tuner m 

MFJ-16010 mmfoftt vrire Tkin«r 

Uperatt; all bands anywhere 
w ith -MFJ 's reversible L-netw orL I ^^ 




Two knob tuning tdifTerenCLal s^^^qos 
capacitor and AitCore^ roller J^V 

inductor) makes moing foolproof and easier 
than ever, Gi\ es minimum S\\'R at oniv one 
setting. Handles 3 KW PEP SSB amplifier 
input power (1,5 KW output). Gear-driven 
Tunis counter, lighted peak/average Cross- 
Needle SWR/Wailmetcn antenna switch, 
balun, L8 to 30 MHz- 10' .Wx4 /:Hxl5 tn. 
iMf J-962D comfKfcf Tutier for Amps 

A feu^ more dollars sicps you ^^jiLgin 
up to a KW tuner for an atnp later. ^^^ 
Handles 1.5 KW PEP SSB amplifier input 
power (800W output). Ideal for Ameriu-on's 
AL-81 IH! Ah<^ore^^ roller inductor, gear- 
driven tUTTis counter, pk/avg lighted Cross - 
Needle SWli^ Wattmeter, antenna switch, bahui, 
Lexanfrom. 1 8-30MHz. lOV.x4'/alOV* in. 
MFJ-969 300W Itoifor bfibctor Twitter 

the world! Handles 
300 Watts. Full 1.8 to 30 MHz 
coverage, 4H position Precision48 
inducior. 1000 VoU tuning capacitors, full 
sire peak average lighted Cross -Needle SWR 
Wattmeter, H position antenna switch* dumm\ 
load. QRSt-Free PreTune^^ scratch proof 
Lexan front panel. 3V;Hxl6Vi.Wx7D inches. 
MFJ-948, SI 29.95. Economy version of MFJ- 
949E, less dummy load, Lexan front panel 

Mfi-9411 sifper vnfue Tuner 

The tnosrfor 
your money! 
Handles 36o Watts 

PEP, covers 1 .8-30 ^ ,p, ^. , _ 

^fHz, lighted Cross-Needle SWR' s j f ©Vs 
W-attmeter. 8 position antenna * A " 

switch, 4: 1 balun, 1000 volt capacitors, 
Lexan fnint panel Sleek 1()'/jWx2'/:!1x7D in. 

iAFJ.945E HF+fi Meter mQMle l^ner 

Extends your mobile 
antenna bandwidth so 

Turns random wire into powerful MFJ- 160 10 
transmitting antenna. 1 .8-30 MHz. *^9** 
ZOOWmtsPHP Tiny 2x3x4 in. 

MFJ-906/903 6 Mefer Tiiiieis 

MFJ-9i»6 hasliehi- f -^- 

~ Ml- J -906 

ed Cross-Needle SWR 
Wallmeter. bypass s\v-itch. 


Handles IW) W FM. 200\V SSB. 
MFJ-903. S49.95. Like MFJ-906, 
less S\\ R Wintjneter. bypass switch. 
MJ:j-92 1/924 VHF/IWPTunere 

MFJ-921 covers 2 
Meters.^220 MHz. 
MFJ-924 covers 440 
MHz. SWR Uaitmeter. 8x2 /^ ^Mrfi'*/ 
inches. Simple 2-knob tuning SAO^^ 
for mobile or base. **^ 

MFJ-933 S44/440 MHz Timer 

Lltra liny 4x2'/:xl /. inch 
Umcr covers VHF 136-175 MHz 
and LfHF 420-460 MM?:, SWR/ 
Wattmeter read^ 60/1 !>0 WattS: 
MPJ-93 1 arHBdol RF Ground 

Creates anificial RF grotmd. 
Also electrically places a 



you don*t have to stop. % *iri r^ i -c - ■ 

go outside and your anien- frnguk^s ^^ ^^y ^^ ground dircci- 

na. Tiny 8x2x6 In. Lighted Cross- •^'^ 
Needle SWRWattmcier. Lamp and bypass 
switches. Covers L8-30 MHz and 6 Meters. 
300 Watts PEP. MF.r-20. S4,93, mobile mount, 

MFJ-971 jKN^hte/OU P Immr 

Tunes coax, balanced .^.^ — n"" M 
lines, random wire L8-30 E^^Qld I 





Superb A irCore'^' Ro Her | loo^ 

Inductor tuninti. Covers 6 Meters *^^ 
thru 160 Metei^! 300 Wans PEP SSB, Active 
true peak reading lighted Cross-Needle SWR 
Wattmeter, QRM-Free PreTune^^, antenna 
switch, dummy load. 4:1 baluru Lexan front 
panel 3'/2Hxl07iWx9'^D inches. 

MHz. Cross-Needle Meter, 
SWR, 30/300 or 6 Watt QRP 
ranges. Matches popular MFJ 
transceivers. Tiny 6x6'/:^2'/2 inches. 

MFJ-901B smaffesf Versa Tuner 

MFJ^s smallest (5x2x6 
in.) and most affordable 
wide range 200 Watt PEP 
Versa tuner. Covers L^ to MFJ-yuiB 
30 MHz. Great for matching *y9** 
solid state rigs to linear amps. 

ly at your rig by tuning 
out reactance of connect- 
ing wire. Eliminates RF hot spots. 
RF feedback, TVI/RFL w-eak sig- 
nals caused bv poor RF grounding, 
MFJ-934, SI 69.95. Artificial ground/300 
Watt Tuner Cross-Needle SWR Wattmeter, 

Free MFJ Catalog 

and Nearest Dealer 

80(^-647-1 mo 

htip://wwn\ tnjjea terprises, voin 

1 Year No Matter What^^ witminty 30 day money 
back guarantee < less s h) on orders from MFJ 


Box 494. Miss. State. MS 39762 

(601 ) 323-5869: S4:30CST,Mon. fn. 

FAX: (601 ) 323-6551; Add s/h 
Tech Help: (601)323-0549 

Pnccs Liiuj Hpi;ciTicatii.nts subjt-gt (o thaii^c:. lie) iwS MFJ Entfrprixm, fm.'. 


160-10 Meters PLUS 6 Meter Transceiver 




^^iwwuiniismiHiirmwjj^/ ■•■ 










^■.. ' / 

■3»^f M^VFO' 

■rTUHiH— . 


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'.-: • 





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Fifteen reasons v\/hy your next HF 
transceiver should be a JST-245, - , 

1 All-Mode Operation (SSB,CW,AM,AFSK,FM) on all HF amateur 
bands and 6 meters. JST-145, same as JST-245 but without 6 
meters and built-in antenna tuner. 


to achieve low distortion and high durability. Rated output is 10 
to 150 watts on aii bands including 6 meters. 

AUTOMATIC ANTENNA TUNER • Auto tuner included as 
standard equipment, Tuner settings are automatically stored 
in memory for fast QSY. 

MULTIPLE ANTENNA SELECTION * Three antenna connec- 
tions are user selectable from front panel Antenna selection can 
be stored in memory. 

GENERAL COVERAGE RECEIVER* 100 kHz-30 MHz. plus 48- 
54 MHz receiver- Electronically tuned front-end filtering, quad- 
FET mixer and quadruple conversion system (triple conversion 
for FM) results in excellent dynamic range (>100dB) and 3rd order 

6 IF BANDWIDTH FLEXIBILITY • Standard 2.4 kHz filter can be 
narrowed continuously to 800 Hz with variable Bandwidth Control 
(BWC). Narrow SSB and CW filters for 2nd and 3rd IF optional. 

QRM SUPPRESSION • Other interference rejection features 
include Passband Shift (PBS), dual noise blanker, 3-step RF atten- 
uation, IF notch filter, selectable AGC and all-mode squelch. 





8 NOTCH TRACKING • Once tuned, the IF notch filter will track the 
offending heterodyne (.t: 10 Khz) if the VFO frequency is changed. 

9 DOS PHASE LOCK LOOP SYSTEM ■ A single-crystal Direct 
Digital Synthesis system is utilized for very low phase noise. 

I CW FEATURES • Full break-in operation, variable CW pitch, built 

in electronic keyer up to 60 wpm, 

I I DUAL VFOs • Two separate VFOs for split-frequency operation. 
Memory registers store most recent VFO frequency, mode, band* 
width and other important parameters for each band. 

1 2 200 MEMORIES • Memory capacity of 200 channels, each of 
which store frequency, mode, AGO and bandwidth, 

13 COMPUTER INTERFACE • Built-in RS-232C interface for 
advanced computer applications. 

1 4 ERGONOMIC LAYOUT • Front panel features easy to read color 
LCD display and thoughtful placement of controls for ease of oper- 

15 HEAVY-DUTY POWER SUPPLY • Built-in switching power 
supply with "siienf cooling system designed for continuous 
transmission at maximim output. 

JRCl 0apan thsdio Co.,Jbtd. 

430 Park Ave., 2nd Floor New York. NY 10022 Phone: (212) 355-1130 Fax: (212) 319 5227 



PC not 

The Kachina 505DSP 
Computer Controlled HF 

Transceiver After twenty years 
of building commercfal 
transceivers in Arizona, Kachina 
has decided the time is right for a 
new approach to amateur radio. 
The Kachina 505DSP is nothing 
short ot a revolution in HF 

Why Use Knobs if You Have 
Windows? The oW-fashtoned 
front pane! has become too 
cluttered to be useful. Too many 
knobs, too many buttons. 
Kachina's 505DSP transceiver 
connects to your computer's 
serial port and is completely 
controlled under Windows"'. With 
optional cables, the radio may be 
remotely located up to 75 feet 
away from your computer. 
Imagine combining a state-of- 

the-art DSP transceiver with the 
processing power and graphics 
capabilities of your PC and you'll 
soon wonder why all radios 
aren't designed this way. Why 
settle for a tiny LCD display 
when your computer monitor can 
simultaneously show band 
activity antenna impedance, 
heat sink temperature. SWR. 
forward and/or reflected power 
and a host of other information? 

1 6/24 Bit DSP/DDS 

Performance In addition to 
100% computer control, the 
Kachina 505DSP offers 
exceptional 16/24 bit DSP/DDS 
performance. fF stage DSP, 
'brick^wair digital filtering, 
adaptive notch filters and digital 
noise reduction, combined with 
low in-barid IMD and high 
signal-to-noise ratio, produce an 

excellent sounding receiver 
Sophisticated DSP technology 
achieves performance levels 
ynimaginabte in the analog 
world. The transmitter also 
benefits from precise 16/24 bit 
processing. Excellent carrier and 
opposite-sideband suppression 
is obtained using superior 
ihasing-method aigorithms. The 
■IF compressor will add tote of 
punch to your transmitted signal 
without adding lots of bandwidth, 
and the TX equalizer will allow 
you to tailor your transmitted 
audio for more highs or lows. 

The Kachina 
505DSP Computer 


■ Works with any Computer 
Running Windows 3.1, 95 
or NT 

» Covers all Amateur HF 
Bands plus General 
Coverage Receiver 

El IF Stage 16/24 Bit Digital 
Signal Processing (DSP) 

■ II DSP Bandpass Filter 
Widths from 100 Hz to 3.5 
kHz (6 kHz in AM Mode) 

■ Band Activity Display with 
"Pbint and Click*' 
Frequency Tuning 

On-screen Antenna 
"Smith" Chart. Logging 
Software and Help Menus 

1 Automatic Frequency 
Other External Standard 

8 ^'Snapshof Keys for 
Instant Recall of 
Frequencies and Settings 

■ Optional Internal Antenna 
Tuner : 

Seeing is Believing 

American-made and designed, 
and able to stand on its own 
against the world's best, the 
505DSP is bound to set the 
standard for alt that follow But 
don't take our word for it. 
Visit our website at 
for detailed specifications, to 
download a demo version ot our 
control software, or to see a 
currenl list of Kachina dealers 
displaying demonsfralion models 
in their showrooms. 

^ f:f a uaU'cinmn. u 



P.O. Box 1949, Cottonwood, Arizona 86326, U.S.A. 
Fax: (520) 634-8053. Tel: (520) 634-7828 
E-Mail: sales @ kachina^az^om 

Specfficanons and features ^ud/ecf to change witiioui fwfHj^,